• Misyar Marriage

    is carried out via the normal contractual procedure, with the specificity that the husband and wife give up several rights by their own free will...

  • Taraveeh a Biad'ah

    Nawafil prayers are not allowed with Jama'at except salatul-istisqa' (the salat for praying to Allah to send rain)..

  • Umar attacks Fatima (s.)

    Umar ordered Qunfuz to bring a whip and strike Janabe Zahra (s.a.) with it.

  • The lineage of Umar

    And we summarize the lineage of Omar Bin Al Khattab as follows:

  • Before accepting Islam

    Umar who had not accepted Islam by that time would beat her mercilessly until he was tired. He would then say

Monday, April 14, 2014

Video - Biography of Umar ibn Khattab (English) by Shia Scholar

Thursday, April 3, 2014

Umar ibn Khattab - Wallpaper HD

Click to enlarge

Wednesday, April 2, 2014

Umar seriously wanted to kill Imam Ali (AS) - Sunni References

Interesting, Second Caliph Umar wanted to kill Imam Ali. Imam Ali says you want to kill a servant of Allah and brother of Holy Prophet. Second Caliph was not moved. Ask permission from first Caliph. He refuses only because Hazrath Fatima is on Ali side. Reported from Ahlul Sunnah book, reference given.
Courtesy : http://www.faraghlit.com/

Friday, March 28, 2014

Judge it Yourself


Yahya related to me from Malik that he had heard that the muadhdhin came to Umar ibn al-Khattab to call him to the subh prayer and found him sleeping, so he said, "Prayer is better than sleep," and Umar ordered him to put that in the adhan for subh. [Muwatta Malik, Book 3, Hadith 8]
http://sunnah.com/malik/3/8

‘Umar Ibn Al-Khattaab said: “If I slept during the day I would have neglected the people, and if I slept during the night I would have neglected myself. How can I sleep when I have these two concerns, O Mu’aawiyah?” [Futooh Misr Wa Al-Maghrib, p.105]
http://theauthenticbase.wordpress.com/2013/02/18/quotes-from-umar-ibn-al-khattaab/

عمر کا مولا علی کو غدیر کے دن مبارک باد دینا

مسند امام احمد، جلد ۳۰، صفحہ ۴۳۰؛ میں ایک روایت آتی ہے


برا بن عازب کہتے ہیں کہ ہم رسول اللہ کے ساتھ تھے سفر میں جب ہم غدیر خم کے مقام پر پہنچے۔ اس وقت نماز کے لیے اذان دی گئی۔ اور رسول اللہ نے نماز پڑھی، اور پھر علی کا ہاتھ پکڑ کے کہا

کیا میں مومنوں پر ان کی جان سے زیادہ حق نہیں رکھتا؟

ہم نے کہا: بالکل

اس پر فرمایا: جس کا میں مولا ہوں، علی اس کے مولا ہیں۔ اے اللہ ! اس کا دوست بن جو اس کا دوست ہے، اور اس کا دشمن بن جو اس کا دشمن ہے۔

اس کے بعد عمر ان سے ملا اور کہا: مبارک ہو اے ابو طالب کے بیٹے! آج آپ تمام مومنین کے مولا بن گئے



عربی متن یوں ہے

Quote

18479 - حَدَّثَنَا عَفَّانُ، حَدَّثَنَا حَمَّادُ بْنُ سَلَمَةَ، أَخْبَرَنَا عَلِيُّ بْنُ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ عَدِيِّ بْنِ ثَابِتٍ، عَنِ الْبَرَاءِ بْنِ عَازِبٍ، قَالَ: كُنَّا مَعَ رَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِي سَفَرٍ، فَنَزَلْنَا بِغَدِيرِ خُمٍّ، فَنُودِيَ فِينَا: الصَّلَاةُ جَامِعَةٌ، وَكُسِحَ لِرَسُولِ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ تَحْتَ شَجَرَتَيْنِ، فَصَلَّى الظُّهْرَ، وَأَخَذَ بِيَدِ عَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللهُ عَنْهُ، فَقَالَ: ” أَلَسْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ أَنِّي أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنْفُسِهِمْ؟ ” قَالُوا: بَلَى، قَالَ: ” أَلَسْتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ أَنِّي أَوْلَى بِكُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ مِنْ نَفْسِهِ؟ ” قَالُوا: بَلَى، قَالَ: فَأَخَذَ بِيَدِ عَلِيٍّ، فَقَالَ: ” مَنْ (1) كُنْتُ مَوْلَاهُ، فَعَلِيٌّ مَوْلَاهُ، اللهُمَّ وَالِ مَنْ وَالَاهُ، وَعَادِ مَنْ عَادَاهُ ” قَالَ: فَلَقِيَهُ عُمَرُ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ، فَقَالَ: ” لَهُ هَنِيئًا يَا ابْنَ أَبِي طَالِبٍ، أَصْبَحْتَ وَأَمْسَيْتَ مَوْلَى كُلِّ مُؤْمِنٍ، وَمُؤْمِنَةٍ “






اس روایت کے سارے راویان بخاری یا مسلم کے ہیں


تاہم علی بن زید پر جرح بھی موجود ہے، اس وجہ شیخ شعیب نے اسے صحیح لیغیرہ کہا


اگرچہ دلچسپ بات یہ ہے کہ یہی سند سنن ابن ماجہ میں بھی آتی ہے، مگر اس میں عمر کا مبارک دینا مذکور نہیں۔ اور اس روایت کو شیخ البانی نے اپنی صحیح سنن ابن ماجہ ؛ جلد ۱، صفحہ ۵٦ روایت ۱۱۵؛ پر درج کی، اور صحیح قرار دیا۔ سند پر توجہ دیں
Quote

 حدثنا علي بن محمد حدثنا أبو الحسين أخبرني حماد بن سلمة عن علي بن زيد بن جدعان عن عدي بن ثابت عن البراء بن عازب قال أقبلنا مع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم في حجته التي حج فنزل في بعض الطريق فأمر الصلاة جامعة فأخذ بيد علي رضي الله عنه فقال ألست أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم قالوا بلى قال ألست أولى بكل مؤمن من نفسه قالوا بلى قال فهذا ولي من أنا مولاه اللهم وال من والاه اللهم عاد من عاداه






خیر واپس آتے ہیں مسند احمد کے محققین کی جانب


دوسرے محقق، شیخ حمزہ احمد زین، نے اپنی تحقیق کے جلد ۱۴، صفحہ ۱۸۵؛ پر اس سند کو حسن کہا۔


اس روایت کو احمد بن حنبل نے اپنی فضائٖل الصحابہ، جلد ۲، صفحہ ۷۵۵، روایت ۱۰۴۲؛ میں درج کیا؛ اور کتاب کے محقق، وصی اللہ بن محمد عباس؛ نے اسے حسن لیغیرہ قرار دیا


سیر اعلام نبلا، جلد ۲، صفحہ ۵۰۲، طبع دار الحدیث قاہرہ؛ پر بھی یہ روایت درج ہے، اور محققین نے اسے حسن حدیث کہا ہے


گویا کسی نے اسے ضعیف نہیں کہا


اس کے علاوہ اس کی تائید میں ایک اور حدیث بھی ہمیں ملتی ہے، تاریخ بغداد، جلد ۹، صفحہ ۲۲۲؛ پر کہ


ابو ہریرہ کہتے ہیں کہ جس نے ۱۸ ذی الحجہ کا روزہ رکھا، اس کو اتنا ثواب لکھا جائے گا جیسا کہ اس نے ٦۰ ماہ کے  روزے رکھے۔ اور یہ غدیر خم کا دن ہے جب نبی پاک نے علی کا ہاتھ پکڑا، اور کہا: کیا میں مومنین کا ولی نہیں؟ لوگوں نے کہا کہ جی بالکل۔ تو نبی پاک نے کہا کہ جس کا میں مولا ہوں، اس کا علی مولا ہے۔ اس پر عمر نے کہا کہ مبارک ہو، مبارک ہو اے ابو طالب کے بیٹے کہ آپ سب مسلمانوں کے مولا بنے۔ اس پر اللہ نے نازل کی یہ آیت کہ آج کے دن میں نے تمہارے دین کو کامل کیا (سورہ مائدہ)

عربی متن یوں ہے
Quote

رقم الحديث: 2775
(حديث مرفوع) أخبرنا عبد الله بن علي بن محمد بن بشران ، قال : أخبرنا علي بن عمر الحافظ ، قال : حدثنا أبو نصر حبشون بن موسى بن أيوب الخلال ، قال : حدثنا علي بن سعيد الرملي ، قال : حدثنا ضمرة بن ربيعة القرشي ، عن ابن شوذب ، عن مطر الوراق ، عن شهر بن حوشب ، عن أبي هريرة ، قال : من صام يوم ثمان عشرة من ذي الحجة كتب له صيام ستين شهرا ، وهو يوم غدير خم لما أخذ النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم بيد علي بن أبي طالب ، فقال : " ألست ولي المؤمنين ؟ " ، قالوا : بلى يا رسول الله ، قال : " من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه " ، فقال عمر بن الخطاب : بخ بخ لك يابن أبي طالب أصبحت مولاي ومولى كل مسلم ، فأنزل الله : اليوم أكملت لكم دينكم سورة المائدة آية 3





محقق، بشار عواد معروف نے اس سند میں یہ ضعف نکالا کہ شھر ابن حوشب اور مطر الوراق ضعیف ہیں۔


اس پر ہم مشہور عالم رجال، ابن حجر عسقلانی کے طرف رجوع کرتے ہیں


وہ کہتے ہیں مطر الوراق سچے ہیں، اگرچہ خطا کافی کرتے ہیں۔ اور عطا سے ان کی روایت ضعیف ہے۔ اس بات کا بھی اشارہ کیا ہے کہ یہ مسلم اور دیگر ۴ کتب  کے راوی ہیں


عربی متن یوں ہے
Quote

6699- مطر بفتحتين ابن طهمان الوراق أبو رجاء السلمي مولاهم الخراساني سكن البصرة صدوق كثير الخطأ وحديثه عن عطاء ضعيف من السادسة مات سنة خمس وعشرين ويقال سنة تسع خت م 4






اس کے علاوہ شھر ابن حوشب کے بارے میں رقمطراز ہیں کہ یہ سچے ہیں اگرچہ ان کو وہم ہوتا ہے، اور مرسل روایات بیان کرتے ہیں۔ اس بات کی بھِ وضاحت کی ہے کہ یہ بھی صحیح مسلم اور دیگر ۴ کتب، یعنی ابن ماجہ، ابی داود، ترمذی، نسائی؛ کے راوی ہیں


عربی متن یوں ہے



Quote

2830- شهر ابن حوشب الأشعري الشامي مولى أسماء بنت يزيد ابن السكن صدوق كثير الإرسال والأوهام من الثالثة مات سنة اثنتي عشرة بخ م 4





گویا یہ دونوں امام مسلم کی شرط پر ثقہ تھے

عمر اسلام لانے کے بعد خوفزدہ تھا

کہ آپ کے بھی کان پک چکے ہوں گے یہ سن سن کے، کہ عمر جب اسلام لایا، تو اسلام کو بہت مضبوطی ملی۔ ہم اس باب میں صحیح بخاری سے رجوع کرتے ہیں کہ جب عمر اسلام لائے، تو ان کی کیا حالت تھی
بخاری اپنی صحیح، جلد ۵، صفحہ ۴۸، حدیث ۳۸٦۴؛ پر درج کرتے ہیں کہ 
عبداللہ بن عمر کہتے ہیں: جب عمر گھر میں خوفزدہ تھے، ان کے پاس عاص بن وائل آئے، جو کہ ایک کڑھائی والی چادر پہنے ہوئے تھے۔ وہ بنی سہم میں تھے، اور ہمارے زمانہ جاہلیت کے حلیف تھے۔ انہوں نے پوچھا کہ: تہمیں ساتھ کیا خرابی ہے؟ عمر کے کہا کہ تمہارے لوگوں نے کہا ہے کہ وہ مجھے قتل کر دیں گے اگر میں اسلام لایا۔ اس نے کہا کہ تمہیں کوئی کچھ نہیں کہتے گا اگر میں تمہیں امان دے دوں۔ سو وہ نکلا اور لوگوں سے ملا، تو ان سے پوچھا کہ کہاں کا ارادہ ہے؟ انہوں نے جواب دیا کہ عمر کا ارادہ ہے جو کہ اسلام لایا۔ اس نے کہا کہ تمہارے پاس کوئی راہ نہیں اس تک جانے کا۔ پس لوگ واپس ہو گئے
عربی متن یوں ہے 


Quote
3864 - حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي عُمَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ: فَأَخْبَرَنِي جَدِّي زَيْدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ: بَيْنَمَا هُوَ فِي الدَّارِ خَائِفًا، إِذْ جَاءَهُ العَاصِ بْنُ وَائِلٍ السَّهْمِيُّ أَبُو عَمْرٍو، عَلَيْهِ حُلَّةُ حِبَرَةٍ وَقَمِيصٌ مَكْفُوفٌ بِحَرِيرٍ، وَهُوَ مِنْ بَنِي سَهْمٍ، وَهُمْ حُلَفَاؤُنَا فِي الجَاهِلِيَّةِ، فَقَالَ لَهُ: مَا بَالُكَ؟ قَالَ: " زَعَمَ قَوْمُكَ أَنَّهُمْ سَيَقْتُلُونِي إِنْ أَسْلَمْتُ، قَالَ: لاَ سَبِيلَ إِلَيْكَ، بَعْدَ أَنْ قَالَهَا أَمِنْتُ، فَخَرَجَ العَاصِ فَلَقِيَ النَّاسَ قَدْ سَالَ بِهِمُ الوَادِي، فَقَالَ: أَيْنَ تُرِيدُونَ؟ فَقَالُوا: نُرِيدُ هَذَا ابْنَ الخَطَّابِ الَّذِي صَبَا، قَالَ: لاَ سَبِيلَ إِلَيْهِ فَكَرَّ النَّاسُ "
ابن حجر اپنی کتاب، فتح الباری، جلد ۱، صفحہ ۳٦۸؛ پر لکھتے ہیں
عمر اپنے گھر میں تھا خوفزدہ، یعنی عمر اسلام لانے کے بعد۔۔۔۔
عربی متن یوں ہے


Quote
أخرج البخاري حديث بن وهب عن عمر بن محمد قال أخبرني جدي زيد بن عبد الله بن عمر عن أبيه قال بينما هو في الدار خائفا يعني عمر بعد أن أسلم إذ جاءه العاص بن وائل السهمي
محترم خود دوسروں کے امان کے محتاج ہیں
یہ پوسٹ برادر المحامی کی عربی پوسٹ سے ماخوذ ہے

Umar was scared When he accepted Islam

Saheeh Bukhari, 5/48, Hadeeth 3864

3864 – حَدَّثَنِي يَحْيَى بْنُ سُلَيْمَانَ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي ابْنُ وَهْبٍ، قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي عُمَرُ بْنُ مُحَمَّدٍ قَالَ: فَأَخْبَرَنِي جَدِّي زَيْدُ بْنُ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ قَالَ: بَيْنَمَا هُوَ فِي الدَّارِ خَائِفًا، إِذْ جَاءَهُ العَاصِ بْنُ وَائِلٍ السَّهْمِيُّ أَبُو عَمْرٍو، عَلَيْهِ حُلَّةُ حِبَرَةٍ وَقَمِيصٌ مَكْفُوفٌ بِحَرِيرٍ، وَهُوَ مِنْ بَنِي سَهْمٍ، وَهُمْ حُلَفَاؤُنَا فِي الجَاهِلِيَّةِ، فَقَالَ لَهُ: مَا بَالُكَ؟ قَالَ: ” زَعَمَ قَوْمُكَ أَنَّهُمْ سَيَقْتُلُونِي إِنْ أَسْلَمْتُ، قَالَ: لاَ سَبِيلَ إِلَيْكَ، بَعْدَ أَنْ قَالَهَا أَمِنْتُ، فَخَرَجَ العَاصِ فَلَقِيَ النَّاسَ قَدْ سَالَ بِهِمُ الوَادِي، فَقَالَ: أَيْنَ تُرِيدُونَ؟ فَقَالُوا: نُرِيدُ هَذَا ابْنَ الخَطَّابِ الَّذِي صَبَا، قَالَ: لاَ سَبِيلَ إِلَيْهِ فَكَرَّ النَّاسُ “


While `Umar was at home in a state of fear, there came Al-`As bin Wail As-Sahmi Abu `Amr, wearing an embroidered cloak and a shirt having silk hems. He was from the tribe of Bani Sahm who were our allies during the pre-Islamic period of ignorance. Al-`As said to `Umar “What is wrong with you?” He said, “Your people claim that they would kill me if I become a Muslim.” Al-`As said, “Nobody will harm you after I have given protection to you.” So Al-`As went out and met the people streaming in the whole valley. He said, “Where are you going?” They said, “We want Ibn Al-Khattab who has embraced Islam.” Al-`As said, “There is no way for anybody to touch him.” So the people retreated.

Which time frame is it talking about, This has been clarified by Ibn Hajar, who writes in Fath-ul-Bari, 1/368

أخرج البخاري حديث بن وهب عن عمر بن محمد قال أخبرني جدي زيد بن عبد الله بن عمر عن أبيه قال بينما هو في الدار خائفا يعني عمر بعد أن أسلم


Bukhri mentioned with Chain to Ibn Umar who said While Umar was at Home in state of fear, That means, Umar after He accepted Islam


Reference : http://www.shiaforums.net/vb/topic/16931-umar-was-scared-when-he-accepted-islam/

Response to Sunni Article on Ghadir Khumm -Part 3

بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

The Chains (Asnad) Of Narrations Of Ghadir Khum

The importance of the tradition of Ghadir Khum in history is reflected in its widespread documentation and mentioned by the multitude of personalities over the centuries. Although, some trivialized, only listed the occurrence among the historical events without giving it a thought, or discussed the matter in a mixture of emotional judgments, none could deny the authenticity of these narrations. The essence of what the Messenger of Allah (S) delivered on the day of Ghadir was not disputed among any, even if they disagreed on its interpretation, for reasons obvious to the alert.
Let us look at the lists of some of the Sunni traditions, commentators, and historians who have documented the tradition of Ghadir Khum in chronological order:

Sunni Traditionists Who Mentioned The Tradition Of Ghadir Khum

1. Muhammad Ibn Idris al-Shafi’i (Imam al-Shafi’i, d. 204) per "al-Nihayah”by Ibn al-Athir
2. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (Imam al-Hanbali, d. 241), in "Masnad”and "al-Manaqib"
3. Ibn Majah (d. 273), in "Sunan Ibn Majah"
4. al-Tirmidhi (d. 279), in "Sahih al-Tirmidhi"
5. al-Nisa’i (d. 303), in "al-Khasa’is"
6. Abu-Ya’la al-Mousilli (d. 307), in "al-Masnad"
7. al-Baghawi (d. 317), in "al-Sunan"
8. al-Doolabi (d. 320), in "al-Kuna wal Asmaa"
9. al-Tahawi (d. 321), in "Mushkil al-Athar"
10. al-Hakim (d. 405), in "al-Mustadrak"
11. Ibn al-Maghazili al-Shafi’i (d. 483), in "al-Manaqib"
12. Muhammad al-Ghazzali (d. 505), in "Sirrul `Alamayn"
13. Ibn Mindah al-Asbahani (d. 512), in his book
14. al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi (d. 568), in "al-Manaqib”and "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt"
15. Abul Faraj Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597), in "Manaqib"
16. al-Ganji al-Shafi’i (d. 658), in "Kifayat al-Talib"
17. Muhib al-Din al-Tabari (d. 694), in "al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah”and "Dhakha’ir al-’Aqabi"
18. al-Hamawainy (d. 722), in "Fara’id al-Samdtin"
19. al-Dhahabi (d. 748), in "al-Talkhis"
20. al-Khatib al-Tabrizi (d. 8th century), in "Mishkat al-Masabih"
21. al-Haythami (d. 807), in "Majma’ al-Zawa’id"
22. al-Jazri (d. 830), in "Asna al-Matalib"
23. Abul Abbas al-Qastalani (d. 923), in "al-Mawahib al-Ladaniya"
24. al-Muttaqi al-Hindi (d. 975), in "Kanz al-Ummal"
25. Abdul Haqq al-Dihlawi, in "Sharh al-Mishkat"
26. al-Hurawi al-Qari (d. 1014), in "al-Muraqat fi Sharh al-Mishkat"
27. Taj al-Din al-Manawi (d. 1031), in "Kunooz al-Haqa’iq fi Hadith Khair al-Khala’iq”and "Faidh al-Qadir"
28. al-Shaikhani al-Qadiri, in "al-Siratul Sawi fi Manaqib Aal al-Nabi"
29. Ba Kathir al-Makki (d. 1047), in "Wasilatul Amal fi Manaqib al-Aal"
30. Abu-Abdullah al-Zarqani al-Maliki (d. 1122), in "Sharh al-Mawahib"
31. Ibn Hamzah al-Dimashqi al-Hanafi, in "al-Bayan wal Taarif"
... and many others.

Sunni Commentators Of Qur’an Who Mentioned Ghadir Khum

The following Sunni commentators mentioned that one or some or all of the mentioned verses of Qur’an (such as (5:67) which was about the Allah’s order to Prophet for announcement of appointment of ‘Ali, (5:3) which was about completeness of religion, and (70:1) which was about the curse of a person who became angry at the Prophet for this announcement) were reported to have been revealed in the event of Ghadir Khum:
1. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310), in "Tafsir al-Bayan”
2. al-Jassas (d. 370), in "Ahkam al-Qur’an"
3. al-Hafiz Abu Nu’aym (d. 430), in "Asbab al-Nuzool"
4. al-Tha’labi (d. 427 or 437), in "Tafsir al-Tha’labi"
5. al-Wahidi (d. 468), in "Asbab al-Nuzool"
6. al-Qurtubi (d. 568), in "Tafsir Jamiul Hukam al-Qur’an"
7. al-Fakhr al-Razi (d. 606), in "al-Tafsir al-Kabir"
8. al-Khazin Baghdadi (d. 741), in "Tafsir al-Khazin"
9. al-Nisaboori (8th century), in "Tafsir al-Nisaboori"
10. Ibn Kathir (d. 774), in his "Tafsir”(complete version) under the verse 5:3 (It is ommitted in coincise version!) narrated from Ibn Mardawayh.
11. al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti (d. 910), in his "Tafsir"
12. al-Khatib al-Sharbini, in his "Tafsir"
13. Abu al-Saud al-Hanafi (d. 972), in his "Tafsir"
14. al-Aloosi al-Baghdadi (d. 1270), in his "Tafsir"
... and many others.

Sunni Historians Who Mentioned The Tradition Of Ghadir Khum

1. Ibn Qutaybah (d. 276), in "Ma’arif”and "Imamah wal Siyasah"
2. al-Baladhuri (d. 279), in "Ansab al-ashraf"
3. Ibn Zawlaq al-Laithi al-Misri (d. 287), in his book
4. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari (d. 310), in an exclussive book "Kitabul Wilayah"
5. al-Khatib al-Baghdadi (d. 463), in "Tarikh Baghdad"
6. Ibn Abd al-Bar (d. 463), in "al-Isti’ab"
7. al-Shahristani (d. 548), in "al-Milal wal Nihal"
8. Ibn ‘Asakir (d. 571), in "Tarikh Ibn ‘Asakir”and "Yaqoot al-Hamawi"
9. Ibn al-Athir (d. 630), in "Usd al-Ghabah"
10. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 654), in "Tadhkirat Khawas al-Ummah"
11. Ibn Abi al-Hadid (d. 656), in "Sharh Nahjul Balagha"
12. Ibn Khalkan (d. 681), in "Tarikh Ibn Khalkan"
13. Abul Fida (d. 732), in his "Tarikh"
14. al-Dhahabi (d. 748) , in "Tadhkirat al-Huffadh"
15. al-Yafi’i (d. 768), in "Miraat al-Jinan"
16. Ibn al-Shaikh al-Balawi, in "Alef Baa"
17. Ibn Kathir (d. 774), in "al-Bidayah wal Nihayah"
18. Ibn Khaldoon (d. 808), in "al-Muqaddimah"
19. al-Nuwairi (d. ~833), in "Nihayat al-Irab fi Finoon al-Adab"
20. al-Maqrizi (d. 845), in "al-Khitat"
21. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852), in "al-Isabah”and "Tahdhib al-Tahdhib"
22. Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki (d. 855), in "al-Fusool al-Muhimmah"
23. Mir Khand (d. 903), in "Habib al-Siyar"
24. Jalalulddin al-Suyuti (d. 910), in "Tarikh al-Khulafa"
25. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, (d. 974), in "al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah"
26. al-Hafiz Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-’Asimi, in "Zain al-Fata"
27. al-Qirmani al-Dimashqi (d. 1019), in "Akhbar al-Duwal"
28. Noor al-Din al-Halabi (d. 1044), in "al-Sirah al-Halabiyah"
... and many others.

The Tradition Of Ghadir Khum Is Parallel (Mutawatir)

The Tradition of Ghadir is narrated in parallel (mutawatir) and is proven by the Sunnis to be from numerous chain of transmitters:
1. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal narrated it from 40 chains;
2. Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in more than 70 chains;
3. Abu Sa’id al-Sijistani from 120 chains;
4. Abu Bakir al-Jaabi from 125 chains;
5. al-Amir Muhammad al-Yamani (2nd century) had 150 chains;
6. al-Dhahabi has written a complete book on its chains and passed a verdict that it is Mutawatir;
7. Abul Abbas Ibn `Uqdah has narrated it through 150 chains.

The Tradition Of Ghadir Khum Is Authentic (Sahih)

1. al-Hafiz Abu Isa al-Tirmidhi (d. 279, the author of Sahih Tirmidhi) wrote: "This is an acceptable (Hasan) and authentic (Sahih) tradition.”(Sahih Tirmidhi, v2, p298)
2. Muhammad Ibn Abdillah al-Hakim (d. 405) wrote: "This tradition is authentic (Sahih) with the criteria of two shaykhs, al-Bukhari and Muslim.”(al-Mustadrak ala al-Sahihain, v3, pp 108-110)
3. al-Hafiz Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Tahawi (d. 321) wrote: "This Hadith is authentic (Sahih) according to the chains of narrators (asnad) and no one has said anything contrary to its narrators.”(Mushkil al-Athar, v2, pp 307-308)
4. al-Hafiz Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-’Asimi wrote: "This tradition is accepted by Ummah and it is in conformity with the principles.”(Zain al-Fata) Likewise the following Sunni scholars in (chronological order) and many more pointed that the tradition of Ghadir Khum is authentic (Sahih) with no doubt:
5. al-Mahamili al-Baghdadi, in "Amali"
6. Ibn Abd al-Bar (d. 463), in "al-Isti’ab"
7. Ibn al-Maghazili al-Shafi’i (d. 483), in "al-Manaqib"
8. Muhammad al-Ghazzali (d. 505), in "Sirrul `Alamayn"
9. Abul Faraj Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 597), in "Manaqib"
10. Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi (d. 654), in "Tadhkirat Khawas al-Ummah"
11. Ibn Abi al-Hadid (d. 656), in "Sharh Nahjul Balagha"
12. al-Ganji al-Shafi’i (d. 658), in "Kifayat al-Talib"
13. Ibn Kathir (d. 774), in his "Tarikh"
14. `Ala al-Din al-Simnani, in "Al-’Urwatul Wuthqa"
15. Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani (d. 852), in "Tahdhib al-Tahdhib"
16. Jalalulddin al-Suyuti (d. 910), in several of his books
17. Abul Abbas al-Qastalani (d. 923), in "al-Mawahib al-Ladaniya"
18. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, (d. 974), in "al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah"
19. Abdul Haqq al-Dihlawi, in "Sharh al-Mishkat"
... and many others.

The Companions Who Narrated The Tradition Of Ghadir Khum

At least 110 companions of the Prophet (S) narrated the tradition of Ghadir Khum. Here are their names listed alphabetically (sorted in Arabic), followed by some of the Sunni references in which their traditions are located. Most of them heard it first hand at the site.
- A -

أ
1. Abu Huraira al-Dowsi (d. 57~59):
“al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, in "Tarikh Baghdad", v8, p290; from two ways.
“Abi al-Hajjaj al-Mazzi, in "Tahdhib al-Kamal fi asmaa al-rijal";
“Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, in "Tahdhib al-Tahdhib", v7, p327;
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "al-Manaqib", p 130;
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt";
“al-Jazri, in "Asna al-Matalib", p3;
“Jalalulddin al-Suyuti, in "al-Durr al-Manthoor", v2, p259;
“Jalalulddin al-Suyuti, in "Tarikh al-Khulafaa", p114;
“Hamawaini, in "Fara’id al-Samtain";
“Muttaqi al-Hindi, in "Kanz al-Ummal", v6, p154, p403; also from 12 companions;
“Ibn Abd al-Bar, in "al-Isti’ab", v2, p473;
“Ibn Kathir, in "al-bidaya wal Nihaya", v5, p214; from various narrators;
“Abi Bakr al-Ja’abi, in "Nukhab al-Manaqib"; via al-Surawi in "al-Manaqib", v1, p529;
“al-Badukhshi, in "Nuzul al-Abrar", p20.
2. Abu Laila al-Ansari (d. 37 in Siffin):
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Manaqib al-Khawarizmi", p35;
“al-Suyuti, in "Tarikh al-Khulafaa", p114;
“al-Samhoudi, in "Jawahir al-’Aqdain".
3. Abu Zainab Ibn ‘Aouf al-Ansari:
“Ibn al-Athir, in "Usd al-Ghabah", v3, p307; and v5, p205;
“Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, in "al-Isabah", v3, p408; and v4, p80.
4. Abu Fadhalah al-Ansari (who took part in the battle of Badr, was martyred in Siffin while he was with ‘Ali (as)):
“Ibn al-Athir, in "Usd al-Ghabah", v3, p307; and v5, p205;
“al-Qadhy Bahlool Bahjat, in "Tarikh Aali Muhammad", p67.
5. Abu Qidamah al-Ansari:
“Ibn al-Athir, in "Usd al-Ghabah", v4, p159; and v5, p276;
“al-Samhoudi, in "Jawahir al-’Aqdain".
6. Abu ‘Umrou Ibn Muhsin al-Ansari:
“Ibn al-Athir, in "Usd al-Ghabah", v3, p307;
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
7. Abu al-Haitham Ibn al-Tihan (d. 37 in Siffin):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt";
“al-Samhoudi al-Shafi’i, in "Jawahir al-’Aqdain".
“al-Qadhy, in "Tarikh Aali Muhammad", p67.
8. Abu Rafi’ al-Qabti (Servent of the Messenger of Allah):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt";
9. Abu Thuwaib Khuwailid (or Khalid) Ibn Khalid Ibn Muhrith al-Hathli (the pre-islamic and post-islamic poet, died during the reign of Uthman):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt", in section 4.
10. Abu Bakr Ibn Abi Qahafah al-Taymi (the First Caliph, d. 13):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
“al-Mansour al-Razi, in "al-Ghadir"
“Shams al-Din al-Jazri al-Shafi’i, in "Asna al-Matalib", p3.
11. Usamah Ibn Zaid Ibn Harithah al-Kalbi (d. 54)
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
12. Ubay Ibn Ka’ab al-Ansari:
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah"; in "al-Yaqin", section 37;
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
“Shams al-Din al-Jazri al-Shafi’i, in "Asna al-Matalib", p4.
13. Asmaa bint ‘Umaice al-Khadh’amiya
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah"; in "al-Yaqin", section 37;
14. Um Salmah (wife of the Prophet):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“al-Samhoudi al-Shafi’i, in "Jawahir al-’Aqdain".
“al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, in "Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah", p40;
“Ahmed Ibn al-Fadhl Ibn Muhammad ba-Kathir al-Makki al-Shafi’i, in "Wasilat al-Ma-al".
16. Um Hani bint Abi Talib:
“al-Bazzar, in "Musnad al-Bazzar";
“al-Samhoudi al-Shafi’i, in "Jawahir al-’Aqdain".
“al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, in "Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah", p40;
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
17. Abu Hamzah Anas Ibn Malik al-Ansari al-Khazraji (the servent of the
Prophet, d. 93):
“al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, in "Tarikh Baghdad", v7, p377;
“Ibn Qutaibah al-Daynouri, in "al-Ma’arif", p291;
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt";
“al-Suyuti, in "Tarikh al-Khulafaa", p114; from al-Tabarani;
“Muttaqqi al-Hindi, in "Kanz al-Ummal", v6, p154, p403;
“al-Badukhshi, in "Nuzul al-Abrar", p20; from al-Tabarani &
al-Khatib.
“Shams al-Din al-Jazri al-Shafi’i, in "Asna al-Matalib", p4.
- B -

ب
18. Baraa Ibn ‘Azib al-Ansari al-Awsi (d. 72):
“Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, in "al-Musnad", v4, p281; from two ways;
“Ibn Majah, in "Sunan ibn Majah", v1, p28-29;
“al-Nisa’i, in "al-Khasa’is", p16;
“al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, in "Tarikh Baghdad", v14, p236;
“Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, in "Tafsir al-Tabari", v3, p428;
“Abi al-Hajjaj al-Mazzi, in "Tahdhib al-Kamal fi Asmaa al-rijal";
“al-Tha’labi, in "al-Kashf wal Bayan";
“Ibn Abd al-Bar, in "al-Isti’ab", v2, p473;
“Muhib al-Din al-Tabari, in "al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah", v2, 169;
“Muhib al-Din al-Tabari, in "Dhakha’ir al-’Aqabi", p67;
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "al-Manaqib", p94;
“Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki, in "al-Fusool al-Muhimmah", p25;
“al-Hafiz al-Ganji al-Shafi’i, in "Kifayat al-Talib", p14;
“al-Fakhr al-Razi, in "Tafsir al-Fakhr al-Razi", v3, p636;
“al-Nisaboori, in "Tafsir al-Nisaboori", v6, p194;
“Jamaluddin al Zarandi, in "Nudhum Durar al-Samtain";
“"al-Jame’ al-Saghir", v2, p555;
“"Mishkat al-Masabeeh", p557;
“Muttaqi al-Hindi, in "Kanz al-Ummal", v6, p152, p397;
“Ibn Kathir, in "al-Bidayah wal Nihayah", v5, p209; v7, p349;
“... Several others from the above sources.
19. Baridah Ibn al-Hasib Abu-Sahal al-Aslami (d. 63):
“al-Hakim, in "Mustadrak al-Hakim", v3, p110;
“Abu Nu’aym al-Isbahani, in "Hilyat al-Awliyaa", v4, p23;
“Ibn Abd al-Bar, in "al-Isti’ab", v2, p473;
“Shams al-Din al-Jazri, in "Asna al-Matalib", p3;
“al-Suyuti, in "Tarikh al-Khulafaa", p114;
“"al-Jame’ al-Saghir", v2, p555;
“al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, in "Kanz al-Ummal", v6, p397;
“al-Badukhshi, in "Nuzul al-Abrar", p20;
“"Tafsir al-Manar", v6, p464.
“...
- Th -

ذ
20. Abu Sa’id, Thabit Ibn Wadi’a al-Ansari al-Khazraji al-Madani:
“Ibn al-Athir, in "Usd al-Ghabah", v3, p307; v5, p205;
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“al-Qadhy, in "Tarikh Aali Muhammad", p67.
- J -

ج
21. Jabir Ibn Samrah Ibn Janadah, Abu Sulaiman al-Suwa’i (d. 70~74):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt", section 4;
“al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, in "Kanz al-Ummal", v6, p398;
22. Jabir Ibn Abdullah al-Ansari (d. 73/74/78 in Madina):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
“Ibn Abd al-Bar, in "al-Isti’ab", v2, p473;
“Abi al-Hajjaj al-Mazzi, in "Tahdhib al-Kamal fi asmaa al-rijal";
“Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, in "Tahdhib al-Tahdhib", v7, p337;
“al-Hafiz al-Ganji al-Shafi’i, in "Kifayat al-Talib", p16;
“Ibn Kathir, in "al-Bidayah wal Nihayah", v5, p209;
“Muttaqi al-Hindi, in "Kanz al-Ummal", v6, p398;
“al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, in "Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah", p41;
“Shams al-Din al-Jazri al-Shafi’i, in "Asna al-Matalib", p3.
“al-Tha’labi, in "Tafsir al-Tha’labi"
23. Jublah Ibn ‘Amrou al-Ansari:
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
24. Jubair Ibn Mut’am Ibn ‘Uday al-Qurashi al-Nawfali (d. 57/58/59):
“al-Qadhy Bahlool Bahjat, in "Tarikh Aali Muhammad", p67.
“Shahab al-Din al-Hamadani, in "Mawaddat al-Qurba";
“al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, in "Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah", p31, p336.
25. Jarir Ibn Abdullah Ibn Jabir al-Bajali (d. 51/54):
“al-Haythami, in "Majma’ al-Zawa’id", v9, p106; from "al-Mu’jam al-Kabir”of al-Tabarani;
“al-Suyuti, in "Tarikh al-Khulafaa", p114; from al-Tabarani;
“Muttaqqi al-Hindi, in "Kanz al-Ummal", v6, p154, p399;
“Ibn Kathir, in "al-Bidayah wal Nihayah", v7, p349;
26. Abu Dharr al-Ghafari, Jundub Ibn Janadah (d. 31):
“Hamawaini, in "Fara’id al-Samtayn", section 58;
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt";
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
“Shams al-Din al-Jazri al-Shafi’i, in "Asna al-Matalib", p4.
27. Abu Junaidah, Junda’ Ibn ‘Amrou Ibn Mazin al-Ansari:
“Ibn al-Athir, in "Usd al-Ghabah", v1, p308;
“al-Qadhy Bahlool Bahjat, in "Tarikh Aali Muhammad", p67.
- H -

ح
28. Habbah Ibn Juwayn, Abu Qudamah al-’Urani al-Bajali (d. 76-79):
“al-Haythami, in "Majma’ al-Zawa’id", v9, p103;
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“al-Doolabi, in "al-Kuna wal Asmaa", v2, p88;
“Ibn al-Athir, in "Usd al-Ghabah", v1, p367;
“Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, in "al-Isabah", v1, p372;
“al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, in "Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah", p34;
29. Hubshi Ibn Janadah al-Salouli:
“Ibn al-Athir, in "Usd al-Ghabah", v3, p307; v5, p205;
“Muhib al-Din al-Tabari, in "al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah", v2, p169;
“al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, in "Kanz al-Ummal", v6, p154;
“Ibn Kathir, in "al-Bidayah wal Nihayah", v5, p211; v7, p349.
“al-Haythami, in "Majma’ al-Zawa’id", v9, p106;
“al-Suyuti, in "Tarikh al-Khulafaa", p114;
“Shams al-Din al-Jazri, in "Asna al-Matalib", p4;
30. Habib Ibn Badil Ibn Warqaa al-Khaza’i:
“Ibn al-Athir, in "Usd al-Ghabah", v1, p368;
“Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalani, in "al-Isabah", v1, p304;
31. Hudhaifa Ibn Usaid, Abu Sarihah, al-Ghafari (from the companions who plegde under the "Tree", d. 40~42):
“al-Tirmidhi, in "Sahih al-Tirmidhi", v2, p298;
“al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, in "Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah", p38; from Samhoodi and Ibn ‘Uqdah as in "al-Muwalat".
“Ibn al-Sabbagh al-Maliki, in "al-Fusool al-Muhimmah", p25;
“Ibn Kathir, in "al-Bidayah wal Nihayah", v5, p211; v7, p348.
“Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, in "al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah", p25;
“Noor al-Din al-Halabi, in "al-Sirah al-Halabiyah", v3, p301;
32. Hudhaifa Ibn al-Yaman al-Yamani (d. 36):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
“al-Hakim al-Hasakani, in "Du’at al-Hudat ila Adaa Haqq al-Muwalat";
“al-Jazri, in "Asna al-Matalib", p4;
33. Hassan Ibn Thabit (one of the poets of al-Ghadir who composed poem during the ceremony):
“Abu Nu’aym al-Isbahani (d. 430), in "Ma Nazala min al-Qur’an fi ‘Ali"
34. al-Imam, al-Sibt, al-Mujtaba, al-Hasan Ibn ‘Ali (as):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt";
35. al-Imam, al-Sibt, al-Shahid, al-Hussain Ibn ‘Ali (as):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“Abu Bakr Ju’abi, in "Nakhb al-Manaqib";
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt";
“al-Hafiz Ibn al-Maghazili al-Shafi’i, in "al-Manaqib";
“Abu Nu’aym al-Isbahani, in "Hilyat al-Awliyaa", v9, p64;
Note: from this point, for the sake of brevity, we skip the references under the name of each companion except for the case of few critical individuals. Interested readers can look up the rest of the references in the encyclopedia of "al-Ghadir", by Allamah al-Amini (ra), volume 1 of 11.
- KH -

خ
36. Abu Ayyoub, Khalid Ibn Zaid al-Ansari (d. 50/51/52):
37. Abu Sulaiman, Khalid Ibn al-Walid Ibn al-Mughairah al-Makhzoomi (d. 21/22):
38. Khuzimah Ibn Thabit al-Ansari (Dhul Shahadatain, d. 37 in Siffin):
39. Abu Sharih, Khuwailid Ibn ‘Amrou al-Khuza’i (d. 68):
- R -

ر
40. Rufa’ah Ibn Abdul Munthir al-Ansari:
- Z -

ز
41. Zubair Ibn al-’Awwam al-Qurashi (d. 36):
42. Zaid Ibn Arqam al-Ansari al-Khazraji (d. 66~68):
43. Abu Sa’id, Zaid Ibn Thabit (d. 45~48):
44. Zaid/Yazid Ibn Sharahil al-Ansari:
45. Zaid Ibn Abdullah al-Ansari:
- S -

س
46. Abu Is’haq, Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas (d. 54-58):
47. Sa’d Ibn Janadah al-’Awfi:
48. Sa’d Ibn ‘Abadah al-Ansari al-Khazraji (d. 14~15)
49. Abu Sa’id, Sa’d Ibn Malik al-Ansari al-Khudri (d. 63/65/74):
50. Sa’id Ibn Zaid al-Qurashi al-’Adwi (d. 50~51):
51. Sa’id Ibn Sa’d Ibn ‘Abadah al-Ansari:
52. Abu Abdullah, Salman al-Farsi (d. 36~37):
53. Abu Muslim, Salmah Ibn ‘Umrou Ibn al-Akwa’ al-Aslami (d. 74):
54. Abu Sulaiman, Samrah Ibn Jundab al-Fazari (d. 58~60):
55. Sahl Ibn Hanif al-Ansari al-Awsi (d. 38):
56. Abu al-Abbas, Sahl Ibn Sa’d al-Ansari al-Khazaraji al-Sa’idi (d. 91):
- SAD & DHAD -

ص ض
57. Abu Imamah, al-Sadi Ibn ‘Ajlan al-Bahili (d. 86):
58. Dhamirah al-Asadi:
- TAA -

ط
59. Talha Ibn ‘Ubaidullah al-Timimi (d. 36):
- ‘A (AYN) -

ع
60. ‘Amir Ibn ‘Umair al-Numairi:
61. ‘Amir Ibn Laila Ibn Dhamrah:
62. ‘Amir Ibn Laila al-Ghafari:
63. Abu al-Tufail, ‘Amir Ibn Wathilah al-Laithi (d. 100/102/108/110):
64. ‘Aisha Ibn Abi Bakr Ibn Abi Qahafah (wife of the Prophet):
65. ‘Abbas Ibn Abdul Muttalib Ibn Hashim (Uncle of the Prophet):
66. ‘Abdul Rahman Ibn ‘Abdu-Rabb al-Ansari:
67. Abu Muhammad, ‘Abdul Rahman Ibn ‘Aouf al-Qurashi al-Zuhri (d. 31/32):
68. ‘Abdul Rahman Ibn Ya’mur al-Daili:
69. ‘Abdullah Ibn Abi Abdul Asad al-Makhzoomi:
70. `Abdullah Ibn Badil Ibn Warqaa (d. 37 in Siffin):
71. ‘Abdullah Ibn Bashir al-Mazini:
72. ‘Abdullah Ibn Thabit al-Ansari:
73. ‘Abdullah Ibn Ja’afar Ibn Abi Talib al-Hashimi (d. 80):
74. ‘Abdullah Ibn Hantab al-Qurashi al-Makhzoomi:
75. ‘Abdullah Ibn Rabi’a:
76. ‘Abdullah Ibn Abbas (d. 68):
77. ‘Abdullah Ibn Abi Ofa ‘Alqamah al-Aslami (d. 86/87):
78. Abu Abdul Rahman, ‘Abdullah Ibn Umar Ibn al-Khattab al-’Udawi (d. 72/73):
79. Abu Abdul Rahman, ‘Abdullah Ibn Masoud al-Hathli (d. 32/33):
80. ‘Abdullah Ibn Yamil/Yamin:
81. ‘Uthman Ibn ‘Affan (d. 35):
82. ‘Ubaid Ibn ‘Azib al-Ansari:
83. Abu Tarif, ‘Uday Ibn Hatam (d. 68):
84. ‘Atiya Ibn Busr al-Mazini:
85. ‘Aqabah Ibn ‘Amir al-Jahani:
86. Amirul Mouminin, ‘Ali ibn Abi Talib (as):
87. Abul Yaqdhan, ‘Ammar Ibn Yasir al-’Unsi al-Shahid (in Siffin 37):
88. ‘Ammar al-Khazraji al-Ansari (d. ied the day of Yamamah):
89. ‘Umar Ibn Abi Salmah Ibn Abdul Asad al-Makhzoomi (his mother
Um Salmah was the wife of the Prophet):
90. ‘Umar Ibn al-Khattab (d. 23):
“Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, in "al-Manaqib";
“Muhib al-Din al-Tabari, in "al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah", v2, p161 & p244;
“al-Hafiz Ibn al-Maghazili al-Shafi’i, in "al-Manaqib":
Two narrations, one via Abu Hurairah, Umar Ibn al-Khattab said: "The Messenger of Allah (s) said: Whomever I was his mawla then ‘Ali is his mawla."
“al-Khatib al-Khawarizmi, in "Maqtal al-Imam al-Sibt";
“Ibn Kathir, in "al-Bidayah wal Nihayah", v7, p349;
“Shams al-Din al-Jazri, in "Asna al-Matalib", p3;
“Shahab al-Din al-Hamadani, in "Mawaddat al-Qurba”and in:
“al-Qundoozi al-Hanafi, in "Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah", p249: "Umar Ibn al-Khattab (ra) said: The Messenger of Allah raised ‘Ali up clearly, and said: "Whoever I was his leader (Mawlah) then ‘Ali is his leader (Mawlah), O’ Allah! Be a guard (Wali) to whomever is his adherent (Walah), and be the enemy to his enemy, forsake the one who forsakes him (abandons him), support the one who supports him. O’ Allah! You are me witness on them.”Umar said: "O’ Messenger of Allah? (i.e. Why ‘Ali?) And there was a young man next to me, with a handsome face and good fragrance. He said to me: "O’ Umar, the Messenger of Allah has agreed to an agreement. No one dissolves it except a hypocrite.”Then the Messenger of Allah took my hand and said: "O’ Umar, it is not sons’ of Adam (i.e., it not a human decision), but Gabriel wanted to make certain to you what I said about ‘Ali."
91. Abu Najid, ‘Imran Ibn Hasin al-Khuza’i (d. 52):
92. ‘Amrou Ibn al-Hamq al-Khaza’i al-Koufi (d. 50):
93. ‘Amrou Ibn Sharahil:
94. ‘Amrou Ibn al-’Asy (a poet of al-Ghadir):
95. ‘Amrou Ibn Murrah al-Jahani, Abu Talha or Abu Mariam:
- F -

ف
96. al-Siddiqah, Fatimah (sa) (the daughter of the Propet, d. 11):
“Ibn ‘Uqdah, in "Hadith al-Wilayah";
“al-Mansour al-Razi, in "al-Ghadir"
“Shams al-Din al-Jazri al-Shafi’i, in "Asna al-Matalib", p3.
“Shahab al-Din al-Hamadani, in "Mawaddat al-Qurba": She said: "The Messenger of Allah (s) said: Whomever I was his leader (wali), then ‘Ali is his leader (wali). And whomever I was his Imam then ‘Ali is his Imam."
97. Fatimah bint Hamzah Ibn Abdul Muttalib:
- Q & K -

ق ك
98. Qais Ibn Thabit Ibn Shammas al-Ansari:
99. Qais Ibn Sa’d Ibn ‘Abadah al-Ansari al-Khazraji:
100. Abu Muhammad, Ka’b Ibn ‘Ajrah al-Ansari al-Madani (d. 51):
- M -

م
101. Abu Sulaiman, Malik Ibn al-Huwairith (d. 74):
102. al-Miqdad Ibn ‘Amrou al-Kindi al-Zuhri (d. 33):
- N -

ن
103. Najiyah Ibn ‘Amrou al-Khaza’i:
104. Abu Barza, Fadhlah Ibn ‘Atabah al-Aslami (d. 65)
105. Nu’aman Ibn ‘Ajlan al-Ansari:
- W & h & Y -

و هـ ي
106. Abu Wasmah, Wahshi Ibn Harb al-Habashi al-Humsi:
107. Wahab Ibn Hamzah:
108. Abu Juhaifah, Wahab Ibn Abdullah al-Suwa’i (d. 74):
109. Hashim al-Murqal Ibn ‘Atabah Ibn Abi Waqqas al-Zuhri al-Madani (d. ied in Siffin year 37):
110. abu Murazim, Ya’la Ibn Murrah Ibn Wahab al-Thaqafi:

More Available

“84 Names of narrators from "Tabi’in”(the following generation of the companions) who narrated the Tradition of Ghadir Khum.
“360 Names of the Sunni Scholars over the past 14 centuries of the Islamic calendar who reported the Tradition of Ghadir Khum.
“22 Documented Protests with some companions and others about the event of Ghadir Khum.

Poetry

Many poems mention the event or are entirely about it. The first poem was the famous companion, Hassan Ibn Thabit, the poet of the Messenger of Allah. Immediately after the Prophet’s speech, Hassan asked for the permission of the Prophet (S) to compose a few verses of poetry about
‘Ali (as) for the audience. The Prophet said: "Say with the blessings of Allah". Hassan stood up and said: "O’ people of Quraish. I follow with my words what preceded and witnessed by the Messenger of Allah. He then composed the following verses at the scene:
He calls them, (on) the day of Ghadir, their Prophet In Khum so hear (and heed) the Messenger’s call, He said: "Who is your guide and leader? (Mowlakum wa Waliyukum)”They said, and there was no apparent blindness (clearly): "Your God, our guide, and you are our leader And you won’t find from among us, in this, any disobedient,"
He said to him: "Stand up O’ ‘Ali, for I am pleased to announce you Imam and guide after me, So whomever I was his leader, then this is his leader So be to him supporters in truth and followers,”
There he asked (du’aa): "Allah? Be a friend and guide to his follower And be, to the one who is ‘Ali’s enemy, an enemy"
“Abu Nu’aym al-Isbahani (d. 430), in "Ma Nazala min al-Qur’an fi ‘Ali”Here is the Arabic text of the above highlighted piece from the poem of Hassan Ibn Thabit:
فقال له قم يا عليُّ فإنَّني
رضيتك من بعدي إماماً و هادياً

On The Occasion of Eid Al-Ghadir

In praise of Allah
Be it Badr, Uhud or Khaibar,
We hear the cry, Haidar - Haidar.
We see his shining sword strike
the ones who Allah dislikes.
All those who even dare
to fight him and aren’t aware
of his valor - can’t survive.
They shall lose their lives.
And there is one who claims to be
the greatest warrior of Arabia - but see
the mighty sword falls on him too.
Even though to challenge him were few.
The Muslims are struck with terror.
They can’t conquer the fort of Khaibar.
Each attack they make is turned back.
The will to fight they utterly lack.
The one who Allah loves, then comes
and out of fear the enemy is numb.
He takes the standard in one hand
and leads this seemingly defeated band.
A group of losers, say the books of history
under his command proceed to their victory.
His advances no one can ever cut short.
Finally he conquers the impenetrable fort.
In another battle the Prophet is betrayed.
As his followers have become so afraid.
They leave him wounded and run away.
Kufr still seems to hold it’s sway.
But there is Haidar e Karrar to aid him.
A lost battle, he will be able to win.
Whenever Asadullah will be there,
to fight Islam, no one shall dare.
These astonishing feats no one can hide,
as time and again he turns the tide.
A battle comes and a battle goes by
Islam’s standard always remains high.
So when in Ghadir - he is proclaimed
Mawla - that Muslims should follow him.
The Prophet’s mission is complete. He alone
can bear the burden of this throne.
Only he can feel the Muslim’s needs,
make sure they perform good deeds,
and guide them to the path of salvation.
He deserves the rulership of this nation.
He has the understanding and wisdom
to be the Imam in Allah’s kingdom.
He is the gateway to the city of knowledge
and above all he has the most courage,
which is seen by his extraordinary feats.
With his scholarly skills none can compete.
Admire his piety. He is not guided by greed.
The Prophet of Allah - only he can succeed.

Response to Sunni Article on Ghadir Khumm - Part 2

The Farewell Pilgrimage

Ten years after the migration, the Messenger of Allah ordered to his close followers to call all the people in different places to join him in his last pilgrimage. On this pilgrimage he taught them how to perform the pilgrimage in a correct and unified form. This was first time that the Muslims with this magnitude gathered in one place in the presence of their leader, the Messenger of Allah. On his way to Mecca, more than seventy thousand people followed Prophet (S). On the fourth day of Dhul-Hajjah more than one hundred thousand Muslims had entered Mecca.

Revelation Of Verse 5:67

On the 18th of Dhul-Hajjah, after completing his last pilgrimage (Hajjatul-Widaa), Prophet was leaving Mecca toward Medina, where he and the crowd of people reached to a place called Ghadir Khum (which is close to today’s Juhfah). It was a place where people from different provinces should say Good bye to each other and take different routes for their home. In this place, the following verse was revealed:
"O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don’t do it, you have not delivered His message (at all); and Allah will protect you from the people ...”(Qur’an 5:67).
Some of Sunni references confirming that the revelation of the above verse of Qur’an was right before the speech of Prophet in Ghadir Khum:
(1) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, under commentary of verse 5:67, v12, pp 49-50, narrated on the authorities of Ibn Abbas, al-Bara Ibn Azib, and Muhammad Ibn ‘Ali.
(2) Asbab al-Nuzool, by al-Wahidi, p50, narrated on the authorities of Atiyyah and Abu Sa’id al Khudri.
(3) Nuzul al-Qur’an, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu’aym narrated on the authorities Abu Sa’id Khudri and Abu Rafi.
(4) al-Fusool al Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki al-Makki, p24
(5) Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz al-Suyuti, under commentary of verse 5:67
(6) Fathul Qadir, by al-Shawkani, under commentary of verse 5:67
(7) Fathul Bayan, by Hasan Khan, under commentary of verse 5:67
(8) Shaykh Muhi al-Din al-Nawawi, under commentary of verse 5:67
(9) al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v3, p301
(10) Umdatul Qari fi Sharh Sahih al-Bukhari, by al-Ayni
(11) Tafsir al-Nisaboori, v6, p194
(12) and many more such as Ibn Mardawayh, etc...
The last sentence in the above verse indicates that the Prophet (S) was mindful of the reaction of his people in delivering that message but Allah informs him not to worry, for He will protect His Messenger from people.

The Speech

Upon receiving the verse, the Prophet (S) stopped on that place (the pond of Khum) which was extremely hot. Then he sent for all people who have been ahead in the way, to come back and waited until all pilgrims who fell behind, arrived and gathered.
He ordered Salman (ra) to use rocks and camel toolings to make a pulpit (minbar) so he could make his announcement. It was around noon time in the first of the Fall, and due to the extreme heat in that valley, people were wrapping their robes around their feet and legs, and were sitting around the pulpit, on the hot rocks.
On this day the Messenger of Allah spent approximately five ours in this place; three hours of which he was on the pulpit. He recited nearly one hundred verses from The Glorious Qur’an, and for seventy three times reminded and warned people of their deeds and future. Then he gave them a long speech. The following is a part of his speech which has been widely narrated by the Sunni traditionists:
The Messenger of Allah declared: "It seems the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call. I am leaving for you two precious things and if you adhere both of them, you will never go astray after me. They are the Book of Allah and my progeny, that is my Ahlul-Bayt. The two shall never separate from each other until they come to me by the Pool (of Paradise)."
Then the Messenger of Allah continued: "Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?”People cried and answered: "Yes, O’ Messenger of God.”Then Prophet (S) held up the hand of ‘Ali and said: "Whoever I am his leader (Mawla), ‘Ali is his leader (Mawla). O’ God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him."
ألَسْتُ أولى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم؟ قالوا بلى يارسول الله. قال: من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه. اللهم وال من والاه و عاد من عاداه.
Some of the Sunni references:
(1) Sahih Tirmidhi, v2, p298, v5, p63
(2) Sunan Ibn Maja, v1, pp 12,43
(3) Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, pp 4,21
(4) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v2, p129, v3, pp 109-110,116,371
(5) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 84,118,119,152,330, v4, pp 281,368,370, 372,378, v5, pp 35,347,358,361,366,419 (from 40 chains of narrators)
(6) Fada’il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Hanbal, v2, pp 563,572
(7) Majma’ al-Zawa’id, by al-Haythami, v9, p103 (from several transmitters)
(8) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v12, pp 49-50
(9) Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v3, p19
(10) Tarikh al-Khulafa, by al-Suyuti, pp 169,173
(11) al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, by Ibn Kathir, v3, p213, v5, p208
(12) Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn Athir, v4, p114
(13) Mushkil al-Athar, by al-Tahawi, v2, pp 307-308
(14) Habib al-Siyar, by Mir Khand, v1, part 3, p144
(15) Sawaiq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, p26
(16) al-Isabah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, v2, p509; v1, part1, p319, v2, part1, p57, v3, part1, p29, v4, part 1, pp 14,16,143
(17) Tabarani, who narrated from companions such as Ibn Umar, Malik Ibn al-Hawirath, Habashi Ibn Junadah, Jari, Sa’d Ibn Abi Waqqas, Anas Ibn Malik, Ibn Abbas, Amarah,Buraydah,...
(18) Tarikh, by al-Khatib Baghdadi, v8, p290
(19) Hilyatul Awliya’, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu’aym, v4, p23, v5, pp26-27
(20) al-Istiab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, Chapter of word "ayn”(‘Ali), v2, p462
(21) Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v6, pp 154,397
(22) al-Mirqat, v5, p568
(23) al-Riyad al-Nadirah, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, v2, p172
(24) Dhaka’ir al-Uqba, by al-Muhib al-Tabari, p68
(25) Faydh al-Qadir, by al-Manawi, v6, p217
(26) Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, by al-Qudoozi al-Hanafi, p297 ... And hundreds more. Please see part 3 for more classified references (traditionists, historians, and commentators).
The above was just a part of speech of the Prophet (S). For a more detailed speech of the Prophet, please see the end of this part.

Revelation Of Verse 5:3

Immediately after the Prophet (S) finished his speech, the following verse of Holy Qur’an was revealed:
"Today I have perfected your religion and completed my bounty upon you, and I was satisfied that Islam be your religion.”(Qur’an 5:3)
Some of Sunni references which mentioned the revelation of the above verse of Qur’an in Ghadir Khum after the speech of the Prophet:
(1) al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Hafiz Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, v3, p19
(2) Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, v8, pp 290,596 from Abu Hurayra
(3) Manaqaib, by Ibn Maghazali, p19
(4) History of Damascus, Ibn Asakir, v2, p75
(5) al-Itqan, by al-Suyuti, v1, p13
(6) Manaqib, by Khawarazmi al-Hanfi, p80
(7) al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, by Ibn Kathir, v3, p213
(8) Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, by al-Qudoozi al-Hanafi, p115
(9) Nuzul al-Qur’an, by al-Hafiz Abu Nu’aym narrated on the authority Abu Sa’id Khudri.
... and more.
The above verse clearly indicates that Islam without clearing up matter of leadership after Prophet was not complete, and completion of religion was due to announcement of Prophet’s immediate successor.

Oath Of Allegiance

After his speech, the Messenger of Allah asked every body to give the oath of allegiance to ‘Ali (as) and congratulate him. Among those who gave him the oath were Umar, Abu Bakr, and Uthman. It is narrated that Umar and
Abu Bakr said:
"Well done Ibn Abi Talib! Today you became the leader (Mawla) of all believing men and women."
Sunni references:
(1) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p281
(2) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v12, pp 49-50
(3) Mishkat al-Masabih, by al-Khatib al-Tabrizi, p557
(4) Habib al-Siyar, by Mir Khand, v1, part3, p144
(5) Kitabul Wilayah, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari
(6) al-Musannaf, by Ibn Abi Shaybah
(7) al-Musnad, by Abu Ya’ala
(8) Hadith al-Wilayah, by Ahmad Ibn `Uqdah
(9) Tarikh, by Khatib al-Baghdadi, v8, pp 290,596 from Abu Hurayra ... and more.

The Number Of People In Ghadir Khum

It was Allah’s will that an increased popularity is associated with this tradition via the tongs of narrators and over the times. So that there is a standing proof for the guiding Imam (peace be upon him). Allah ordered His Prophet (S) to notify people at a time of crowded populous so that all become the narrators of the tradition, while they exceeded a hundred thousand.
Narrated by Zaid Ibn Arqam: Abu al-Tufail said: "I heard it from the Messenger of Allah, and there was no one (there) unless he saw him with his eyes and heard him with his ears."
Sunni reference:
(1) al-Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, p21;
(2) al-Dhahabi said it is sahih (authentic), as said in:
(3) History of Ibn Kathir, v5, p208
It is also narrated that:
"The Messenger of Allah called at the height of his voice."
Sunni reference: Manaqib al-Khawarizmi, by al-Khawarizmi, p94
"There were with the Messenger (S) from the companions, Arabs, residents around Mecca and Medina one hundred and twenty thousand (120,000) and they are those who were present in the Farewell Pilgrimage and heard this speech."
Sunni reference: Manaqib, by Ibn al-Jawzi

Revelation Of Verse 70:1-3

Some Sunni commentators further claim that the first three verse of the chapter of al-Ma’arij (70:1-3) was revealed when a dispute arose after Prophet reached Medina. It is recorded that:
On the day of Ghadir the Messenger of Allah summoned the people toward ‘Ali and said: "‘Ali is the mawla of whom I am mawla.”The news spread quickly all over urban and rural areas. When Harith Ibn Nu’man al-Fahri (or Nadhr Ibn Harith according to another tradition) came to know of it, he rode his camel and came to Medina and went to the Messenger of Allah (S) and said to him: "You commanded us to testify that there is no deity but Allah and that you are the Messenger of Allah. We obeyed you. You ordered us to perform the prayers five times a day and we obeyed. You ordered us to observe fasts during the month of Ramadhan and we obeyed. Then you commanded us to offer pilgrimage to Mecca and we obeyed. But you are not satisfied with all this and you raised your cousin by your hand and imposed him upon us as our master by saying `’Ali is the mawla of whom I am mawla.’ Is this imposition from Allah or from You?”The Prophet (S) said: "By Allah who is the only deity! This is from Allah, Mighty and the Glorious."
On hearing this Harith turned back and proceeded towards his she-camel saying: "O Allah! If what Muhammad said is correct then fling on us a stone from the sky and subject us to severe pain and torture.”
He had not reached his she-camel when Allah, who is above all defects flung at him a stone which struck him on his head, penetrated his body and passed out through his lower body and left him dead. It was on this occasion that Allah, the exalted, caused to descend the following verses:
"A questioner questioned about the punishment to fall. For the disbelievers there is nothing to avert it, from Allah the Lord of the Ascent.”(70:1-3)
Sunni references:
(1) Tafsir al-Tha’labi, by Is’haq al-Tha’labi, commentary of verse 70:1-3 from two chain of narrators.
(2) Noor al-Absar, by Shablanji, p4
(3) al-Fusool al-Muhimmah, by Ibn Sabbagh al-Maliki al-Makki, p25
(4) al-Sirah al-Halabiyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v2, p214
(5) Arjah al-Matalib
(6) Nazhat al-Mujalis from al-Qurtubi

The Events That Imam ‘Ali (as) Reminded The Tradition

Imam ‘Ali (as), in person, reminded others who witnessed the event of Ghadir and the tradition of the Messenger of Allah; these are some of the events:
- On the day of Shura (Election Day for Uthman)
- During the days of Uthman’s rule
- The Day of Rahbah (year 35) where 24 companions stood up and swore that they attended and heard the tradition of the Prophet (S) first hand, of whom were the warriors of Badr.
- The Day of Jamal (the War of Camel, year 36) where he reminded Talha.
- The Day of the Riders where 9 witnesses testified.
About the Battle of Camel, al-Hakim and Ahmad Ibn Hanbal and others recorded that:
We were in the camp of ‘Ali on the day of Battle of Camel, where ‘Ali sent for Talha to talk to him (before the beginning of war). Talha came forward, and ‘Ali told him: I adjure you by Allah! Didn’t you hear the Messenger of Allah (S) when he said: `Whoever I am his MAWLA, this ‘Ali is his MAWLA. O God, love whoever loves him, and be hostile to whoever is hostile to him’?”Talha replied: "Yes.”‘Ali said: "Then why do you want to fight me?”
Sunni reference:
- al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, pp 169,371
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, on the authority of Ilyas al-Dhabbi
- Muruj al-Dhahab, by al-Mas’udi, v4, p321
- Majma’ al-Zawa’id, by al-Haythami, v9, p107
Ahmad Ibn Hanbal recorded in his Musnad that:
Abu Tufayl narrated that He (‘Ali) gathered the people in the plain of Rahbah (on year 35 AH) and adjured in the name of Allah every Muslim male present there who had heard the proclamation of al-Ghadir from the Messenger of Allah (S) to stand up and testify what they had heard from the Messenger on the Day of Ghadir.
Thereupon thirty (30) stood up and gave evidence that the Prophet grasped ‘Ali’s hand and said to the audience: "He (‘Ali) has superior authority over those who believe me to have superiority over their lives. O Allah! Love him who loves him and hate him who hates him.”
Abu Tufayl says that it was in a state of great mental agitation that he left the plain of Rahbah, the Muslim masses had not complied with the tradition. He therefore called on Zaid Ibn Arqam and told him what he heard from ‘Ali. Zaid told him not to entertain any doubt about it for he himself had heard the Messenger of Allah uttering those words.
Sunni reference: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p370 also:
Abd al-Rahman Ibn Abu Laylah said: I witnessed ‘Ali administering an oath to the people in the plain of Rahbah. ‘Ali said: "I adjure those of you in the name of Allah who heard the Messenger of Allah on the day of Ghadir saying `’Ali is the Mawla of whom I am Mawla’ to stand up and to testify. He who was not an eyewitness doesn’t need to stand up.”Thereupon twelve (12) such companions who had participated in the Battle of Badr stood up. The occasion is still fresh in my memory.
Sunni references:
- Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p119, see also v5, p366
- Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, pp 21,103, narrated similar to above on the authority of three others: Umayah Ibn Sa’d, Zaid Ibn yathigh, and Sa’id Ibn Wahab.
It is also recorded that:
When ‘Ali said to Anas: "Why don’t you stand up and testify what you heard from the Messenger of Allah on the day of Ghadir?”He answered, "O Amir al-Mumineen! I have grown old and do not remember.”Thereupon ‘Ali said: "May Allah mark you with a white spot (of leprosy; Alphosis) unconcealable with your turban, if you are intentionally withholding the truth.”And before Anas got up from his place he bore a large white spot on his face, Thereafter Anas used to say, "I am under the curse of the righteous servant of Allah."
Sunni references:
(1) al-Ma’arif, by Ibn Qutaybah, p14, in the account of Anas among disabled persons.
(2) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, p199, where he testifies to the above anecdote, as he says: "All stood up except three persons who came under the curse of ‘Ali."
(3) Hilyatul Awliya’, by Abu Nu’aym, v5, p27

A More Detailed Speech Of Prophet At The Pond Of Khum

Messenger of Allah said:
"Praise belongs to Allah. We ask Him for help, and we believe in Him, and to Him we trust. We seek refuge to Him from the evil of our souls and the sins of our deeds. Verily there is no guide for the one whom Allah leaves in stray, and there is non who leads astray the one whom Allah has guided."
"O People! Know that Gabriel came down to me several times bringing me an order from the Lord, the Merciful, that I should stop at this place and inform you. Behold! It is as if the time approached when I shall be called away (by Allah) and I shall answer that call."
"O Folk! Don’t you witness that there is no deity but Allah, Muhammad is His servant and His Apostle, Paradise is truth, Hell is truth, is truth, resurrection is truth, and that the Hour shall certainly arrive, and Allah shall raise people from the graves?"
People replied: "Yes, we believe in them."
He continued: "O People! Do you hear my voice (clearly)?”
They said: Yes".
The Prophet said: "Behold! I am leaving among you two precious and weighty Symbols that if you adhere to both of them, you shall never go astray after me. Each of these two surpasses the other in its grandeur."
A person asked: "O Messenger of Allah, what are those two precious things?"
The Prophet replied: "One of them is the Book of Allah and the other one is my select progeny (Itrat), that is family (Ahlul-Bayt). Beware of how you behave them when I am gone from amongst you, for Allah, the Merciful, has informed me that these two (i.e., Qur’an and Ahlul-Bayt) never separate from each other until they reach me in Heaven at the Pool (of al-Kawthar). I remind you, in the name of Allah, about my Ahlul-Bayt. I remind you, in the name of Allah, about my Ahlul-Bayt. Once more! I remind you, in the name of Allah, about my Ahlul-Bayt.”
"Behold! I am your predecessor at the Pool (of Paradise) and I shall be a witness against you. Thus be careful how you treat these two precious things after me. Do not precede these two for you will perish, and do not stay away from them for you will perish."
"O People! Don’t you know that I have more authority upon you than yourself?”People cried and said: "Yes, O Messenger of Allah.”Then prophet repeated: "O Folk! Do I not have more right over the believers than what they have over themselves?”People said again "Yes, O Messenger of Allah.”Then Prophet said: "O People! Surely God is my Master, Whoever and I am the master of all believers.”Then he grasped the hand of ‘Ali and raised it and said: I am his master, ‘Ali is his master (repeating three times). O God! Love those who love him. Be hostile to those who are hostile to him. Help those who help him. Forsake those who forsake him. And keep the truth with him wherever he turns (i.e., make him the axis of the truth)."
"‘Ali, the son of Abu Talib, is my brother, my executor (Wasi), and my successor (Caliph), and the leader (Imam) after me. His position to me is the same as the position of Haroon (Aaron) to Moses, except that there shall be no prophet after me. He is your master after Allah and His Messenger."
"O Folk! Verily Allah has appointed him to be your Imam and ruler. of him is obligatory for all Immigrants (Muhajirin) and Helpers (Ansar) and those who follow them in virtue, and on the dwellers of the cities and the nomads, the Arabs and the non-Arabs, freeman and the slave, the young and the old, the great and the small, the white and the black.”
"His commands should be obeyed, and his word is binding and his order is obligatory on everyone who believes in one God. Cursed is the man who disobeys him, and blessed is the one who follows him, and he who believes in him is a true believer. His WILAYAH (belief in his mastery) has been made obligatory by Allah, the Powerful, the Exalted."
“O Folk! Study the Qur’an. Reflect on its clear verses and do not presume the meaning of the ambiguous verses. For, by Allah, nobody can properly explain them to you its warnings and its meanings except me and this man (i.e., ‘Ali) whose hand I am lifting up in front of myself."
"O People! This is the last time that I shall stand in this assembly. Listen to me and obey and submit to the command of Lord. Allah, He is your Lord and God. After Him, His prophet, who is addressing you, is your master. Then after me, this ‘Ali is your master and your leader (Imam) according to Allah’s command. Then after him leadership will continue through some selected individuals in my descendants till the day you meet Allah and His Prophet."
"Behold! Certainly you shall meet your Lord and He will ask you about your deeds. Beware! Do not become infidels after me by striking the necks of one another. Lo! It is incumbent upon those who are present to inform what I said to those who are absent for perhaps the informed one might comprehend it (understand it) better than some of the present audience. Behold! Haven’t I conveyed the Message of Allah to you? Behold! Haven’t I conveyed the Message of Allah to you?”People replied: "Yes.”The Prophet said: "O God! Bear witness."
References:
- A’alam al-Wara, pp 132-133
- Tadhkirat al-Khawas al-Ummah, Sibt Ibn al-Jawzi al-Hanafi, pp 28-33
- al-Sirah al-Halabiyyah, by Noor al-Din al-Halabi, v3, p273

Response to a Sunni Article on Ghadir Khumm-Part 1

No Muslim scholar could ever cast any doubt in the documentation of the tradition of Ghadir Khum, for it has been narrated with as much as 150 authentic chains of transmitters by the Sunnis alone. (Please see Part III for the evidences in this regard).
A Mutawatir report is a report which has been narrated unbrokenly and independently by so many people so that no doubt can be entertained about their authenticity. Even the students of Ibn Taymiyyah such as al-Dhahabi and Ibn Kathir who have proven their enmity toward the Shi’a, emphasized that the tradition of Ghadir Khum is Mutawatir and Sahih (authentic) (See al-Bidayah wan Nihayah).
However some people did try to interpret the tradition in a different way. They particularly tried to translate the words Wali (master/guardian), Mawla (master/leader), and Wilayah (mastery/leadership/guardianship) as friend and friendship. Dictionaries give a minimum of 20 meanings for the Arabic word Wali,
depending on context, most have to do with the position of leadership and guardianship. Only in one instance it could mean a friend.
Arabic References:
- Elias’ Modern Dictionary, by Elias A. Elias, Arabic-English, p815-816, Lebanon.
- al-Munjid fi al-Lughah, v1.
Some suggested that what really the Prophet (S) wanted to say was: "Whoever I am his friend, ‘Ali is his friend.”There was no doubt that Imam ‘Ali (as) had a very high status in comparison with all other people.
He was the first male who embraced Islam (Sahih Tirmidhi, v5, p642; Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal v4, p317; Mustadrak by al- Hakim, v3, pp 111,136; Sirah Ibn Hisham, p345; Tabaqat by Ibn Sa’d, v3, p71,72; al-Istiab by Ibn Abd al-Bar, v3, p30).
He received the title of the "brother”of Prophet (Sahih Tirmidhi v5, p363; Sirah Ibn Hisham, p504; Tahdhib v4, p251).
He was the one for whom Prophet said: "Loving ‘Ali is believing, hating ‘Ali is hypocrisy.”(Sahih Muslim, v1, p48; Sahih Tirmidhi, v5, p643; Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p142; Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal v1, pp 84,95,128).
Thus it does not seem to be logical for the Prophet (S) to keep more than a hundred thousand people in such unbeatable heat, and keep them waiting in such condition until those who have left behind reach the place, and then all to tell them was that "‘Ali is the friend of believers!"
Moreover how can we justify the revelation of Verse 5:67 which was revealed before the speech of the Prophet in which Allah said:
"O Apostle! Deliver what has been sent down to you from your Lord; and if you don’t do it, you have not delivered His message (at all);
and
Allah will protect you from the people ...”(Qur’an 5:67).
Is it logical to say that Allah warned his Prophet that if he does not convey the message of "friendship of ‘Ali", he has spoiled all he has done?!
Also what danger can be imagined for Prophet if he states "‘Ali is the friend of believers"? Then what danger from the side of people is the above verse referring to?
Furthermore, how can the phrase "‘Ali is the friend of believers”complete the religion? Is the verse of completeness of religion (5:3) which was revealed after the speech of Prophet suggesting that without saying "‘Ali is the friend of believers”the religion is not complete?
Also, as we quoted in the first part, Umar and Abu Bakr congratulated ‘Ali by saying: "Congratulations O son of Abu Talib! Today you became the MAWLA of all believing men and women.”If, here, the word Mawla means friend then why the congratulations? Was ‘Ali the enemy of all believers before that time, so that Umar said that this day you became the friend of them?!
In fact, every Wali is a friend, but the reverse is not always true. This is why the Arabs use "Wali al-Amr”for the rulers, meaning the master of the affairs. Thus, logically speaking, the word Mawla can not be interpreted as friend, and we should rather use its other more-frequently-used meanings which are Leader and Guardian.
Perhaps one would ask why Prophet didn’t use other words to further explain his intention. In fact, people asked him the same question, and the following Sunni documentations are the answers of the Prophet (S):
1. When the Messenger of Allah (s) was asked about the meaning of "whomever I am his MAWLA then ‘Ali is his Mawla". He said: Allah is my Mawla more deserving of me (my obedience) than myself, I do not dispute him. I am the Mawla of the believers, deserving in them than themselves, they do not dispute me., whomever I was his Mawla, more deserving in him than himself (and) does not dispute me, then ‘Ali is Mawla, more deserving in him than himself, he does not dispute him."
Sunni references:
- Shamsul Akhbar, by al-Qurashi, ‘Ali Ibn Hamid, p38
- Salwat al-’Arifin, by al-Muwaffaq billah, al-Husayn Ibn Isma’il al Jurjani.
2. During the reign of Uthman, ‘Ali protested by reminding people the following tradition. Also, he reminded it again during the war of Siffin:
When the Messenger of Allah spoke of (Tradition of Ghadir)..., Salman stood up and said: "O’ Messenger of Allah! What does WALAA mean? and how?”Prophet replied: "The same way that I am your WALI (Wala-un ka wala’i). Whomever (considered me) I was more deserving in him than himself, then ‘Ali is more deserving in him than himself."
Sunni reference: Fara’id al-Samtain, by Hamawaini (Abu Is’haq Ibrahim Ibn Sa’d al-Din Ibn al-Hamawiyia), section 58.
3. ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib was asked about the saying of the Messenger of Allah "Whomever I am his MAWLA then ‘Ali is his MAWLA". He said: He erected me chief (‘alaman). To the time I am up there, whomever contradicts me then he is lost (misguided in religion)."
Sunni reference: Zain al-Fata, by al-Hafiz al-’Asimi
4. On the commentary of Verse: "And stop them, they are to be asked (Qur’an 37:24)", al-Daylami narrated that Abu Sa’id al-Khudri said: The Messenger of Allah (S) said: "And stop them, they will be asked of WILAYAH of ‘Ali."
Also, al-Hafiz al-Wahidi commented on the above verse saying: This WILAYAH that the Prophet (S) affirmed to ‘Ali, will be asked about on the Day of Judgment. It is said that WILAYAH is what Allah meant in the verse 37:24 of Qur’an where He said: "And stop them, they are to be asked (37:24)". This means that they will be asked about the WILAYAH of ‘Ali (ra). The meaning is: They will be asked if they truly accepted him as their WALI as they were instructed by the Prophet (S)? or did they loose and ignore it?"
Sunni references:
- al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar al-Haythami, Ch. 11, subheading 1, p229 quoted from al-Wahidi; also quoted from al-Daylami on the authority of Abi Sa’id al-Khudri.
- Fara’id al-Samtain, by Hamawaini (Abu Is’haq Ibrahim Ibn Sa’d al-Din Ibn al-Hamawiyia), section 14
- Nudhum Durar al-Samtain, by Jaml al-Din al-Zarandi
- al-Rashfah, by al-Hadhrami, p24
Countless scholars of Qur’an, Arabic grammar, and literature have interpreted the word MAWLA as Awla which means "having more authority."
The following Sunni specialists all confirmed the above meaning:
1. al-Wahidi (d. 468), in "al-Wasit"
2. al-Akhfash Nahwi (d. 215), in "Nihayat al-Uqul"
3. al-Tha’labi (d. 427), in "al-Kashf wal Bayan"
4. Ibn Qutaybah (d. 276), in "al-Qurtayan", v2, p164
5. al-Kalbi (d. 146, quoted in "Tafsir al-Kabir", by al-Razi, v29, p227)
6. al-Farra’ (as quoted in "Ruhul Ma’ani", by al-Alusi, v27, p178)
7. al-Nasafi (d. 701), in his "Tafsir", v4, p229
8. al-Tabari (d. 310), in "Tafsir al-Tabari", v9, p117
9. al-Bukhari (d. 215), in "Sahih al-Bukhari", v7, p271
10. al-Zamakhshari (d. 538), in "Tafsir al-Kashshaf", v2, p435
11. Qazi Nasiruddin al-Baydawi (d. 692), in "tafsir al-Baydawi", v2, p497
12. al-Khazin al-Baghdadi (d. 741), in his "Tafsir", v4, p229
13. Muhib al-Din al-Afandi, in "Tanzil al-Ayat"
14. Mu’ammar Ibn Muthanna al-Basri (as quoted in "Sharh al-Mawaqif", by al-Sharif al-Jurjani, v3, p271)
15. Abul Abbas Tha’lab (as quoted in "Sharh al-Sab’ah al-Mu’allaqah", by al-Zuzani)
16. Ibn Abbas, in his "Tafsir”written on the margin of Durr al-Manthur, v5, p355
17. Abu al-Saud al-Hanafi (d. 972), in his "Tafsir"
18. and many more such as Yahya Ibn Zaid Kufi (d. 207), Abu Ubaida Basri (d. 210), Abu Zaid Ibn Aus Basri (d. 125), Abu Bakr Anbari (d. 328), Abul Hasan Rummani (d. 384), Sa’d al-Din Taftazani (d. 791), Shaba Uddin Khafaji (d. 1069), Hamzawi Maliki (d. 1303), Husayn Ibn Mas’d (d. 510), Abu Baqa Ukbari (d. 616), Ibn Hajar al-Haythmai (d. 974), Sharif Jurjani (d. 618), Abdul Abbas Mubarrad (d. 285), Abu Nasr Farabi (d. 393) and, Abu Zakariya Khateeb Tarizi (d. 502),...
Thus the word WALI or MAWLA in the tradition of Ghadir Khum does not mean a simple friend, rather it means master and guardian who has more authority over believers than what they have over themselves as Prophet himself mentioned by saying "Don’t I have more authority (Awla) on believers than what they have over themselves?". At least 64 Sunni traditionists have quoted this preceding question of the Prophet, among them are al-Tirmidhi, al- Nisa’i, Ibn Majah, Ahmad In Hanbal.
Therefore, the opinion of the above Sunni scholars accords with what Prophet (S) said by using the word Awla before the word Mawla. In fact, when a word has more than one meaning, the best way to find out its true connotation is to look at the association (qarinah) and the context. The word Awla (having more authority) used by the Prophet gives a good association for the word Mawla. Also the prayer of Prophet after his declaration in which he said:
"O’ God, love those who love him, and be hostile to those who are hostile to him. Help those who help him, and forsake those who forsake him",
shows that ‘Ali (as) on that day was entrusted with a responsibility (rulership) which, by its nature, would make some people his enemy, and in carrying out that responsibility he would need some helpers and supporters. Are helpers ever needed to carry on a "friendship"?
Moreover, The declaration of Prophet (S) that "It seems the time is approached when I will be called away (by Allah) and I will answer that call”clearly shows that he was making arrangements for the leadership of Muslims after his death.
Also when at the end of his speech, the Prophet (S) said twice: "Behold! Haven’t I conveyed the message of Allah?”or "It is incumbent upon every one who is present to inform the absent for they may understand it better than those who are present”(Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English, traditions 5.688, 7.458, and 9.539) shows that the Prophet was conveying a very important message which was going to be transferred to all coming generations. This matter could not have been a simple friendship.
It is worth mentioning that Prophet did use the word Caliph in his speech in Ghadir Khum, but it does not appear in the majority of Sunni documents since there is no way to tamper the meaning of that word. However the Prophet (S) also used the word MAWLA in his speech to survive this event from being wiped up from the historical records with no trace.
It is interesting to note that the words WALI and MAWLA are also used in Qur’an frequently with the meaning of master and guardian. For instance, the Holy Qur’an states:
"Allah is the Wali of those who believe; He brings them out of darkness (and takes them) into light.”(Qur’an 2:257)
The above verse does not mean that Allah is just a friend of believers, because a simple friend who has no authority can not move anybody into light. Rather it means Allah is the Master of believers and that is why He moves them from darkness to light. In another verse Allah said:
"Surely the Awliyaa of Allah have no fear nor do they grieve.”Qur’an 10:62)
The word Awliyaa is the plural form of Wali. The above verse does not mean that whoever is the friend of Allah does not have any fear. Many good Muslims may have experienced fear for some events in their lifetime while they are not the enemies of Allah. Thus the above verse suggests something else than a simple friend. Here the word Wali is in the form of Faeel with the meaning of Maf’ool. So the above verse means: "Those whose guardian and the master of their affairs is Allah are not subject to fear and apprehension.”
So if a believer totally submits to Allah, he then will not have any fear. But ordinary believers whose submission are not perfect, will probably be subject to fear of this and that, while we are still friends of Allah. Thus "Wali of Allah”is a person who has totally submitted his affairs to Allah and therefore he is totally protected by Allah from any kind of flaw and sin. This status is much higher than position of being just a "Friend of Allah".
Nevertheless Allah uses the word Awliyaa in its general meaning that is "protectors". The Holy Qur’an states:
"The believers, men and women, are Awliyaa of one to the other: they command to what is just and forbid what is evil”(Qur’an 9:71).
Looking at different translations, one can find that they have used the word "protectors”for the meaning of Awliyaa. The above verse does not want to say that believers are just friends of each other. Rather the believers are under a mutual obligation to one another, and are occupied with each other’s affair. As a result of these obligations, they "command each other what is good and forbid each other what is evil”as the rest of above verse suggests. Thus here the meaning of Awliyaa, though is still higher than "friends", but it is clearly lower than "master”and "leader". Here Awliyaa has been used in its general meaning. But for a special meaning of Wali, see the following verse:
"Only Allah is your Wali, and His Messenger and those among believers who keep alive prayer and pay Zakat while they are in the state of bowing.”(Qur’an 5:55)
The above verse clearly suggests that not all the believers are our Wali with the special meaning of WALI in this verse which is "master”and "leader". Again, here it is clear that Wali does not mean just friend, because all the believers are friends of each other. The above verse mentions that only three things are your special Wali: Allah, Prophet Muhammad, and Imam ‘Ali for he was the only one at the time of Prophet who paid Zakat while he was in the state bowing (ruku’). Muslim scholars are unanimous in reporting this event. Here are just some of the Sunni references which mentioned the revelation of the above verse of Qur’an in the honor of Imam ‘Ali:
(1) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ahmad Ibn Muhammad al-Tha’labi, under Verse 5:55
(2) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v6, pp 186,288-289
(3) Tafsir Jamiul Hukam al-Qur’an, by Muhammad Ibn Ahmad Qurtubi, v6, p219
(4) Tafsir al-Khazin, v2, p68
(5) Tafsir al-Durr al-Manthur, by al-Suyuti, v2, pp 293-294
(6) Tafsir al-Kashshaf, by al-Zamakhshari, Egypt 1373, v1, pp 505,649
(7) Asbab al-Nuzool, by Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, Egypt 1382, v1, p73 on the authority of Ibn Abbas
(8) Asbab al-Nuzool, by al-Wahidi
(9) Sharh al-Tjrid, by Allama Qushji
(10) Ahkam al-Qur’an, al-Jassas, v2, pp 542-543
(11) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v5, p38
(12) Kanzul Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v6, p391
(13) al-Awsat, by Tabarani, narrated from Ammar Yasir
(14) Ibn Mardawayh, on the authority of Ibn Abbas... and more.
Paying Zakat during bowing (ruku’) is not a Sunnah. This is accepted by ALL Muslim scholars. Thus the above verse does not seek to set down the desirability or the necessity of paying Zakat during bowing (ruku’), nor does it want to lay it down as duty or something recommended legally in the Islamic sense as a kind of Divine Law (Shari’ah).
Rather it is a reference to an action which took place when someone did something in the external world, and now Qur’an is pointing that action to indicate that person. In an indirect way, the verse wants to say that this WALI is a special WALI whose authority has been put beside the authority of Prophet Muhammad (S) since they are jointly mentioned.
One may object that even though ‘Ali did this action, a plural form has been used in the above verse, thus it might encompass some other people as well. First, the history tells us that there was no other individual who did this at the time of Prophet. Second, this way of approach in Qur’an which uses plural form but actually referring to just one person who did that particular act, is NOT uncommon in Qur’an. For instance Allah mentioned:
"They say: If we return to Medina the mightier (element) will soon drive out the weaker.”(63:8)
Here also Qur’an is referring to a story which took place, and uses the phrase "They say”while the speaker of the above sentence was not any more than one person. According to Shi’a and Sunni commentators he was Abdullah Ibn Ubayy Ibn Salul.
Qur’an tries to avoid using names of people as much as possible. This is done for many reasons such as generality to make it a universal book, and also to make Qur’an safer from any possible alteration by those who hate a special individual who has been praised in Qur’an, or by those who love a person who has been denounced in Qur’an.
Using plural while referring to single, has another application too. Sometimes the act of a single person is worthier than the deeds of a whole nation. This was the case for Prophet Muhammad, Imam ‘Ali, as well as the case for Prophet Abraham. Qur’an mentions that Abraham (as) was a nation (Ummah), meaning that his deeds was more valuable than all other people.
Allah stated:
"Lo! Abraham was a nation (Ummah) who was obedient to Allah, nature upright, and he was not of the idolaters”(Qur’an 16:120)
The famous and respected companion of Prophet, Ibn Abbas (ra) said:
"There is no verse in Qur’an in which the term `Believers’, unless ‘Ali is at the top of them and the chief of them and the more virtuous one among them. Surely Allah has admonished the companions of Muhammad (S) in Qur’an, but He did not refer to ‘Ali except with honor."
Sunni references:
- Fadha’il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p654, tradition #1114
- al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, v3, p229
- Tarikh al-Khulafaa, by al-Hafidh Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, p171
- Dhakha’ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p89
- al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 9, section 3, p196
- Others such as Tabarani and Ibn Abi Hatam
And further, Ibn Abbas said:
"There hath not been revealed in the Book of God regarding any one what hath been revealed concerning ‘Ali,”and that "three hundred verses have been revealed concerning ‘Ali."
Sunni references:
- Ibn Asakir, as quoted in:
- Tarikh al-Khulafaa, by al-Hafidh Jalaluddin al-Suyuti, p171
- al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar Haythami, Ch. 9, section 3, p196
Thus the verse (5:55) is actually saying that ONLY Allah is your WALI, and then Prophet Muhammad, and Imam ‘Ali. Thus we can conclude that the WILAYAH (mastership/leadership) of Imam ‘Ali is the same as that of Prophet Muhammad (S) since Allah put them beside each other. The authority of Prophet Muhammad is explained by the following verses of Qur’an:
"The Prophet has a greater priority/authority (Awla) over the believers than what they have over themselves”(Qur’an 33:6)
or:
"O’ you who believe! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those from among you who are given authority (by Allah).”(Qur’an 4:59)
One may look at other verses with regard to the authority of Prophet such as 4:65, 59:7, 9:103, 33:21. Putting all these verses beside the verse 5:55, one can derive that this priority and authority will also be for Imam ‘Ali after the demise of the Messenger of Allah.
al-Nisa’i and al-Hakim have also recorded other versions of the tradition of Ghadir Khum with different wordings which provide more insight to the meaning of the tradition. They narrated on the authority of Zaid Ibn Arqam that:
Prophet added: "Certainly Allah is my MAWLA and I am WALI (master/ guardian) of all the faithful.”Then he grasped the hand of ‘Ali and said: "He (‘Ali) is the Wali of all those of whom I am Wali. O Allah! Love those who love him and hate those who hate him."
Sunni references:
- Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, p21
- al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p109
In another wording:
Prophet (S) asked three times: "O’ people! Who is your Mawla? They replied: Allah and His Messenger.”Then he grasped the hand of ‘Ali and raised it and said: "Whoever his Wali is Allah and his Messenger, then this man is his Wali also."
Sunni reference: Khasa’is, by al-Nisa’i, p6
If WALI means friend, then why people answered only Allah and His Messenger are Wali? They should have answered all the believers are Wali. This clearly shows that people got it right, but they later chose to act otherwise. Now let us look at the following tradition:
‘Ali came to the plain of Rahbah, and some people told him "Peace on you O’ our Mawla!”‘Ali replied: "How can I be your Mawla while you are Arabs (free men)?”They said: "We heard the Messenger of Allah (S) on the day of Ghadir Khum who said: `Whoever I was his Mawla he (‘Ali) is his Mawla.’"
Sunni reference: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v5, p419
If Mawla means friend, then why was ‘Ali (as) asking the above question?
Was friendship new to Arabs? In fact Imam ‘Ali was asking this question to reiterate the importance of the word Mawla and showing that people at that time did not mean it friend for him, and that what they meant is master of the believers.
Concluding the above discussion, it is clear that any individual who tries to trivialize the tradition of Ghadir Khum by saying that Prophet just wanted to say "‘Ali is the friend of believers", is neglecting the above- mentioned traditions of prophet in which he explained what he meant by Wali, and also neglecting the above-mentioned verses of Qur’an (those which were revealed in Ghadir Khum and those which explain the importance of Wali). Finally, the following tradition from Sunni references further illuminates the fact that WALI means Imam since the tradition uses the
phrase "follow them”and "Imam". Ibn Abbas (ra) narrated that the Messenger of Allah said:
"Whoever wishes to live and die like me, and to abide in the Garden of Eden after death, should acknowledge ‘Ali as Wali after me, and take his Wali (i.e., Imams after him) as Wali, and should follow the Imams after me for they are my Ahlul-Bayt and are created from my clay and are gifted with the same knowledge and understanding as myself. Woe unto those who deny their virtues and those who disregard their relationship and affinity with me, for my intercession shall never reach them."
Sunni references:
(1) Hilyatul Awliya’, by Abu Nu’aym, v1, pp 84,86
(2) al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p128
(3) al-Jamiul Kabir, by al-Tabarani
(4) al-Isabah, by Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani
(5) Kanzul Ummal, v6, p155
(6) al-Manaqib, by al-Khawarizmi, p34
(7) Yanabi’ al-Mawaddah, by al-Qunduzi al-Hanafi, p149
(8) History of Ibn Asakir, v2, p95

‘Ali Vs. Truth (Right Path):

In some versions of the Tradition of Ghadir Khum there is an extra sentence that is he Prophet (S) said:
"Wa dara al-haqq ma’ahu haithu dar", literally: "And the truth (the right path) turns with him (i.e. ‘Ali) wherever way he turns."
Sunni reference: Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Din al-Razi, under the commentary of "al-Bismilah"
Similarly in Sahih al-Tirmidhi, it is narrated that:
The Messenger of God said: "O God, have Thy Mercy on ‘Ali. O God, make the right and the truth with ‘Ali in all situations."
Sunni reference: Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p297
In Arabic, linguistically, the wording (balagha) could play tricks on the listener. Logically, truth is absolute and not variable. A person, relative to the truth, could be variable in action.
In this case, the person (i.e. Imam ‘Ali) is placed as the absolute fixed axes around which the event is taking place; such that, if anything changes in the person’s decision, the event is the thing that will change its track -- truth in this case!!! Since, such change is not logically reasonable due to the absolute nature of truth, then one can conclude that the two are married and are inseparable. Hence, ‘Ali (as) stands for truth at all times.
Thus the saying of the Prophet (S) is a metaphoric way to stress ‘Ali’s importance and attachment to the truth (right path) such that ‘Ali (as) and the "right path”are indistinguishable.
Whereas, if put in the reverse order (i.e. ‘Ali turns with truth...) it would leave room, theoretically, for ‘Ali to make other possible turns, by virtue of ‘Ali being the moving object. This would sound weaker, and would imply the nature of a non-infallible person.

Popular Posts (Last 30 Days)

 
  • Recent Posts

  • Mobile Version

  • Followers