• Misyar Marriage

    is carried out via the normal contractual procedure, with the specificity that the husband and wife give up several rights by their own free will...

  • Taraveeh a Biad'ah

    Nawafil prayers are not allowed with Jama'at except salatul-istisqa' (the salat for praying to Allah to send rain)..

  • Umar attacks Fatima (s.)

    Umar ordered Qunfuz to bring a whip and strike Janabe Zahra (s.a.) with it.

  • The lineage of Umar

    And we summarize the lineage of Omar Bin Al Khattab as follows:

  • Before accepting Islam

    Umar who had not accepted Islam by that time would beat her mercilessly until he was tired. He would then say

Wednesday, July 1, 2015

Sahih Bukhari and Foot of Umar ;-)

Sahih Bukhari, Vol. 2, Book 23, Hadith 474

Narrated `Urwa:
When the wall fell on them (i.e. graves) during the caliphate of Al-Walid bin `Abdul Malik, the people started repairing it, and a foot appeared to them. The people got scared and thought that it was the foot of the Prophet. No one could be found who could tell them about it till I (`Urwa) said to them, "By Allah, this is not the foot of the Prophet (ﷺ) but it is the foot of `Umar."

http://sunnah.com/bukhari/23

Super Fast Tarawih 20 Rakat in 7 minutes. (Video)

Wednesday, April 15, 2015

The Calamity of Thursday ( Pen and Paper Incident ) - Full article

Content:

1. Unconditional obedience to the prophet

2. The narrations of the calamity of thursday

3. Analysis of the event

4. Why did the prophet want to write this document?

5. Was the will about succession?

6. Could the prophet not have left a will?

7. Pretexts to justify the actions of Umar and his followers

8. Abu Bakr on his deathbed

9. Umar on his deathbed

Note : Readers are advised to read the whole post to know the full detail of this incident

Chronologically, this incident happened after the prophet ordered most of the companions to join the military expedition of Usama ibn Zayd and after Abu Bakr's despicable attempt to lead the congregational prayers on behalf of the prophet.

1. Unconditional obedience to the prophet                  

The companions who were present in the room of the prophet got into a loud dispute in the presence of the prophet who only willed to write what will save his Ummah from going astray. The believers should not raise their voices above that of the prophet and in his presence:

Quran 49:2

O you who believe! do not raise your voices above the voice of the Prophet, and do not speak loud to him as you speak loud to one another, lest your deeds became null while you do not perceive.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ

They accused the prophet of speaking nonsense because the pain of his illness overtook him, they accused him of being delirious. The messenger only speaks the truth and not out of desire. Allah taught him and he attained completion:

Quran 53:2-6

Your Companion is neither astray nor being misled. Nor does he (prophet) speak out of his desire. (What he says) is nothing but revelation that is revealed. The Lord of Mighty Power has taught him, the Lord of Strength; so he attained completion.

مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَى {2} وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَى {3} إِنْ هُوَ إِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُوحَى {4} عَلَّمَهُ شَدِيدُ الْقُوَى {5} ذُو مِرَّةٍ فَاسْتَوَى {6}

Would an honored messenger speak nonsense?? It is allah who honored him and not a human being. Would Allah send us a prophet who will talk nonsense and be delirious at any instance of his life?? This is a prophet, source of guidance for God's sake, an infallible!!! Did any other prophet speak nonsense in any instance of his life??? Certainly not! Then how could the seal of prophethood, the noble and the truthful speak nonsense?? How obnoxious their behaviour was indeed!

Quran 69:40-43

Most surely, it is the Word brought by an honored Messenger, And it is not the word of a poet; little is it that you believe; Nor the word of a soothsayer; little is it that you mind. It is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds.

إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ - وَمَا هُوَ بِقَوْلِ شَاعِرٍ قَلِيلًا مَا تُؤْمِنُونَ - وَلَا بِقَوْلِ كَاهِنٍ قَلِيلًا مَا تَذَكَّرُونَ - تَنزِيلٌ مِّن رَّبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

The necessity to believe in the messenger of Allah: Could the noble prophet speak nonsense when Allah orders us to believe in his prophet who will make for us a light with which we will walk (guidance)?!

Quran 57:28

O you who believe! be careful of (your duty to) Allah and believe in His Messenger: He will give you two portions of His mercy, and make for you a light with which you will walk, and forgive you, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful;

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَآمِنُوا بِرَسُولِهِ يُؤْتِكُمْ كِفْلَيْنِ مِن رَّحْمَتِهِ وَيَجْعَل لَّكُمْ نُورًا تَمْشُونَ بِهِ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ

Unconditional obedience to the prophet: Allah has ordered us to obey the prophet. He did not say to obey him under some specific circumstances. This form of unconditional obedience describes our belief in him.

Quran 5:92

Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger, and beware (of evil): if ye do turn back, know ye that it is Our Messenger's duty to proclaim (the message) in the clearest manner.

وَأَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَاحْذَرُواْ فَإِن تَوَلَّيْتُمْ فَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّمَا عَلَى رَسُولِنَا الْبَلاَغُ الْمُبِينُ

Those who disobeyed the prophet are unbelievers and Allah does not love the unbelievers.

Quran 3:31-32

Say: If you love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your faults, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful - Say: Obey Allah and the Messenger; but if they turn back, then surely Allah does not love the unbelievers.

قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ - قُلْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ فإِن تَوَلَّوْاْ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ لاَ يُحِبُّ الْكَافِرِينَ

 

Quran 4:59

O you who believe! obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority from among you; then if you quarrel about anything, refer it to Allah and the Messenger, if you believe in Allah and the last day; this is better and very good in the end.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَأَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَأُوْلِي الأَمْرِ مِنكُمْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فِي شَيْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلَى اللّهِ وَالرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الآخِرِ ذَلِكَ خَيْرٌ وَأَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً

 

Quran 24:54

Say: Obey Allah and obey the Messenger; but if you turn back, then on him rests that which is imposed on him and on you rests that which is imposed on you; and if you obey him, you are on the right way; and nothing rests on the Messenger but clear delivering (of the message).

قُلْ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ فَإِن تَوَلَّوا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيْكُم مَّا حُمِّلْتُمْ وَإِن تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُوا وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ

 

Quran 8:20

O you who believe! obey Allah and His Messenger and do not turn back from Him while you hear.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلاَ تَوَلَّوْا عَنْهُ وَأَنتُمْ تَسْمَعُونَ

 

Quran 47:33

O you who believe! obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and do not make your deeds of no effect.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ

 

Quran 8:46

And obey Allah and His Messenger and do not quarrel for then you will be weak in hearts and your power will depart, and be patient; surely Allah is with the patient.

وَأَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَلاَ تَنَازَعُواْ فَتَفْشَلُواْ وَتَذْهَبَ رِيحُكُمْ وَاصْبِرُواْ إِنَّ اللّهَ مَعَ الصَّابِرِينَ

 

Quran 4:80

He who obeys the Messenger, obeys Allah: But if any turn away, We have not sent thee to watch over their (evil deeds).

مَّنْ يُطِعِ الرَّسُولَ فَقَدْ أَطَاعَ اللّهَ وَمَن تَوَلَّى فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا

 

Quran 3:132

And obey Allah and the messenger, that ye may find mercy.

وَأَطِيعُواْ اللّهَ وَالرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ

 

Quran 81:19-22

Most surely it is the Word of an honored messenger, the processor of strength, having an honorable place with the Lord of the Dominion, One (to be) obeyed, and faithful in trust. And your companion is not gone mad.

إِنَّهُ لَقَوْلُ رَسُولٍ كَرِيمٍ - ذِي قُوَّةٍ عِندَ ذِي الْعَرْشِ مَكِينٍ - مُطَاعٍ ثَمَّ أَمِينٍ - وَمَا صَاحِبُكُم بِمَجْنُونٍ

Once the prophet decides on a matter, no one is allowed to intervene to alter the decision:

 

Quran 33:36

It is not fitting for a Believer, man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allah and His Messenger to have any option about their decision: if any one disobeys Allah and His Messenger, he is indeed on a clearly wrong Path.

وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَلَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضَى اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لَهُمُ الْخِيَرَةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَمَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا

We ought to respect every decision made by the prophet.

Quran 59:7

Whatever Allah has restored to His Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the Messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not be a thing taken by turns among the rich of you, and whatever the Messenger gives you, accept it, and from whatever he forbids you, keep back, and be careful of (your duty to) Allah; surely Allah is severe in retributing (evil):

مَّا أَفَاء اللَّهُ عَلَى رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَى وَالْيَتَامَى وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاء مِنكُمْ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُوا وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ



Wednesday, March 18, 2015

Umar raising his voice in the presence of the Prophet(SAWA) and disrespecting him

Allah warned those who raised their voices in the presence of the prophet and those who speak aloud to him. A well-behaved companion will not raise his voice in the presence of the prophet, he will not speak loud to the prophet and will ask the permission of the prophet before giving his point of view regarding a matter.

This event occurred few months before the demise of the prophet. This means that the two caliphs knew well how they should behave in the presence of the prophet. With all their misdeeds, I still don't understand why Abu Bakr is known as al-Siddiq (the truthful) and Umar ibn al-Khattab as al-Farrouq (the distinguisher). It just does not make sense that it was the prophet's idea. Certainly, an Umayyad addition!

This sign of disrespect also occured 3 days before the demise of the prophet (s), an incident known as the Calamity of Thursday. Umar and his followers raised their voices in desagreement when the prophet asked them to bring him some writing tools so he can write them something that will never lead them astray. Their desagreement was so loud that the prophet expelled them from the room.

Quran 49:1-3
O Ye who believe! Put not yourselves forward before Allah and His Messenger; but fear Allah: for Allah is He Who hears and knows all things. O ye who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud to him in talk, as ye may speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds become vain and ye perceive not. Those that lower their voices in the presence of Allah's Messenger,- their hearts has Allah tested for piety: for them is Forgiveness and a great Reward.
بِسْمِ اللهِ الرَّحْمنِ الرَّحِيمِ - ِ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ - يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ - إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَاتَهُمْ عِندَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَى لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ
 
Narrated Ibn Abi Mulaika: The two righteous persons were about to be ruined. They were Abu Bakr and 'Umar who raised their voices in the presence of the Prophet when a mission from Bani Tamim came to him. One of the two recommended Al-Aqra' bin Habeas, the brother of Bani Mujashi (to be their governor) while the other recommended somebody else. (Nafi', the sub-narrator said, I do not remember his name). Abu Bakr said to Umar, "You wanted nothing but to oppose me!" 'Umar said, "I did not intend to oppose you." Their voices grew loud in that argument, so Allah revealed: 'O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet.' (49.2) Ibn Az-Zubair said, "Since the revelation of this Verse, 'Umar used to speak in such a low tone that the Prophet had to ask him to repeat his statements." But Ibn Az-Zubair did not mention the same about his (maternal) grandfather (i.e. Abu Bakr).
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, #368, Book: al-Tafseer; Page 1052, #4845
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 9, Book 92, #405, Book: Holding Fast to The Quran and The Sunnah; Page 1534, #7302
 
 
Narrated Abdullah bin Az-Zubair: A group of Bani Tamim came to the Prophet (and requested him to appoint a governor for them). Abu Bakr said, "Appoint Al-Qaqa bin Mabad." Umar said, "Appoint Al-Aqra' bin Habeas." On that Abu Bakr said (to 'Umar). "You did not want but to oppose me!" 'Umar replied "I did not intend to oppose you!" So both of them argued till their voices grew loud. So the following Verse was revealed: 'O you who believe! Be not for ward......' (49.1)
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, #370, Book: al-Tafseer; Page 1053, #4847
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 5, Book 59, #653, Book: al-Maghaazi; Page 908, #4367


If the next narration is authentic, it clearly shows how Umar admitted his disrespect to the prophet. However, this narration cannot be authentic, because in this case, the prophet would have contradicted the Quran, which is impossible. Allah says:
Quran 9:84
And never offer prayer for any one of them who dies and do not stand by his grave; surely they disbelieve in Allah and His Messenger and they shall die in transgression.
وَلاَ تُصَلِّ عَلَى أَحَدٍ مِّنْهُم مَّاتَ أَبَدًا وَلاَ تَقُمْ عَلَىَ قَبْرِهِ إِنَّهُمْ كَفَرُواْ بِاللّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَمَاتُواْ وَهُمْ فَاسِقُونَ

Allah clearly prohibits a believer to offer prayer for those who died hypocrites and unbelievers. It is also reported that this verse was revealed before this event (al Mizan vol. 9 page 385), which is contradicted by this report. The narration says that the prophet offered his prayers to the known hypocrite Abdullah ibn Ubay and Umar was trying to prevent him. Does Umar no better than the messenger? And would the prophet contradict the command of Allah? The other strange thing is that these verses belong to sourat al-tawba and not al-Bara'a. I wonder if this narration is a fabrication.

Narrated Umar bin Al-Khattab: When 'Abdullah bin Ubai bin Salul died, Allah's Apostle was called in order to offer the funeral prayer for him. When Allah's Apostle got up (to offer the prayer) I jumped towards him and said, "O Allah's Apostle! Do you offer the prayer for Ibn Ubai although he said so-and-so on such-and-such-a day?" I went on mentioning his sayings. Allah's Apostle smiled and said, "Keep away from me, O 'Umar!" But when I spoke too much to him, he said, "I have been given the choice, and I have chosen (this) ; and if I knew that if I asked forgiveness for him more than seventy times, he would be forgiven, I would ask it for more times than that." So Allah's Apostle offered the funeral prayer for him and then left, but he did not stay long before the two Verses of Surat-Bara'a were revealed, i.e.:-- 'And never (O Muhammad) pray for anyone of them that dies.... and died in a state of rebellion.' (9.84) Later I was astonished at my daring to speak like that to Allah's Apostle and Allah and His Apostle know best.
Reference:
     Sahih Bukhari, Volume 6, Book 60, #193, Book: al-Tafseer; Page 1053, #4847  
 
The disrespect of Umar and ill-mannered attitude of Umar did not stop there. He is the companion who accused the prophet of being delirious when the latter wanted to write them a document that will protect the nation of Muhammad from ever going astray. 

Thursday, March 5, 2015

RasoolAllah ko wasiyat karne se roka.... Hazrat Umar ne Galti ki... Sunni Maulana Ishaq (Video)

Tuesday, March 3, 2015

Umar and Fabrications Involving the Qur’an

From the Book :
When Power and Piety Collide
By Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini

Some of the Umayyah clan went so far as to claim that some of the Qur’anic verses descended because of Umar’s wishes, actions, and suggestions. For instance, al-Suyuti says:

When Umar gave his opinion about something, the Qur’an would come with a verse supporting his opinion. Whenever there was a disagreement between the people and Umar, the Qur’an came and supported what Umar said... Allah supported Umar and confirmed his views in 21 places in the Qur’an.[1]

Such narrations claim that because Umar had instructed the Prophet not to seek forgiveness for the hypocrites that Allah revealed the following verse, “Whether you seek forgiveness for them or not, Allah will never forgive them." (c. 9:80) They also say that Umar suggested to the Muslims to prepare themselves for the Battle of Badr, and the Qur’an came in support of Umar’s idea. However, these reports ironically neglect the fact that Umar is recorded to have been against the military engagement for the Battle of Badr. In addition, it is alleged that Allah revealed, “And whoever is the enemy of Allah and His angels and His Messengers and Gabriel and Michael, Lo! Allah is an enemy to those who reject faith," (c. 2:98) because Umar was defending the Angel Gabriel against a Jewish man who called the angel their enemy. Moreover, they maintain that the verse requiring people to seek permission before entering a person’s chamber also came at the request of Umar.[2] These are all blatant tales trying to raise the status of Umar.

Imam al-Nawawi attributes many verses to Umar and says, “The Qur’an descended in conformance with Umar in many places, such as the prisoners of Badr, the verse of hijab, the station of Ibrahim, and the prohibition of wine."40 However, the latter statement is extremely doubtful, since historians agree that Umar gradually ceased drinking.41 In fact, the final verse prohibiting alcohol was revealed after Umar became drunk and injured the head of Abd al-Rahman b. Auf.

-------------------

[1] Al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa, p.122-123

[2] Ibid., p.124

Fabricated Traditions in praise of Umar b. al-Khattab

From the Book :
When Power and Piety Collide
By Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini

Many of the fabricated hadith were introduced to provide religious legitimacy for the government of the caliphs. In fact, that could be seen as the primary motive for inventing hadith. For this reason, many posthumous narrations are recorded in praise of Umar b. al-Khattab; some of which are attributed to the Prophet having said them, others to Imam Ali, and some are attributed to various companions.

However, almost all of these hadith are flawed as either they contradict the Qur’an, the sunnah or other established facts, or one or more of their narrators are known to be unreliable, according to the standards of recognizing the hadith in the Sunni tradition.

Virtually all of the fabricated sayings in praise of Umar appeared during the time of Bani Umayyah, particularly during the rule of Mu’awiyah b. Abu Sufyan, for obvious reasons, since the Bani Umayyah was attempting to consolidate their rule. In contrast, most of the reliable hadith about Umar that appeared during his lifetime and have been included in the Sunni books are not overly favorable for him.

Umar is recorded to have said about himself, “All people are more knowledgeable than Umar, even the housewives."[1] He asks, “Doesn’t it surprise you that your leader erred and a lady in his audience corrected him?"[2] He also spoke about himself saying, “All the people are more knowledgeable than you, Umar."[3] In regards to the claims of Ali supposedly praising Umar’s knowledge, Sunni and Shia agree that Umar said, “If it were not for Ali, Umar would have perished."[4]

From the viewpoint of other companions, “Umar b. al-Khattab took twelve years to learn Surah al-Baqarah, and when he learned it, he sacrificed a cow."[5] One of the transcribers of the Qur’an, Ubay b. Ka’ab said to Umar, “The reason for your lack of knowledge about the Qur’an is that the Qur’an was keeping me busy (with it), while you were busy in the marketplace."[6] Al-Bayhaqi says, “Since the house of Umar was far from the Mosque of the Prophet in the area of al-Awali, he used to go to the Mosque of the Prophet once every two days."[7]

Conversely, many unreliable hadith grossly exaggerate Umar’s position and knowledge. One says, “If all of the knowledge of humanity was put on one side of a scale, and the knowledge of Umar was put on the other, then the knowledge of Umar would outweigh the knowledge belonging to all of humanity."[8] If this hadith was true, then what would be the need for the Prophet if Umar had all of this knowledge? Another “hadith" says, “One day an earthquake hit Madinah, and Umar hit the ground with his stick and said, ‘Be calm, by the permission of Allah,’ and the earthquake ceased because Umar told it to."[9] Moreover, another “hadith" claims that the Prophet said, “If I had never been sent to you as a prophet, Umar would have been sent by Allah as a prophet."[10] One hadith goes as far as to state, “In the nations before us, there were some people whom the angels would talk to, and if there is one person in our ummah that one is Umar."[11]

Although Umar looked to Ali for guidance during his caliphate, still Ali is purported to have said, “We used to say there is an angel speaking through the tongue of Umar."[12] While hadith pointing to the realistic good qualities of the second caliph would not be out of the ordinary; nonetheless, these traditions go beyond the bounds of credibility and suggest that Umar himself was higher than the Prophet was, and this is definitely an unacceptable belief.

Not all hadith regarding the second caliph came out of nowhere. Some hadith were specifically introduced to either counterbalance or share a similar tone in praising Ahlul Bayt or the immediate household of the Prophet. For example, Sunni and Shia both agree that the Prophet said about his daughter, “Fatima is part of me. Whoever angers her angers me, and whoever angers me angers Allah."[13] Therefore, the appearance of a similar hadith about Umar is not surprising - it reads, “Avoid angering Umar, for if he becomes angry, Allah will become angry."[14] Regarding one of the narrators of this hadith, Abu Luqman b. Asakir says, “He narrates false narrations and attributes them to people who are honest and trustworthy."[15]

Fortunately, many authentic hadith passed the test of time; nevertheless, numerous unfounded hadith remain. Moreover, such hadith continue to cause friction among the schools of thought. As an example, one fabrication that al-Dhahabi dismisses, in fact, he says, “This is a clear fabrication," is the hadith that reports:

The first thing that Allah will embrace on the Day of Judgment is Umar b. al-Khattab, and the first thing that Allah will shake hands with is Umar b. al-Khattab, and the first who Allah will take his hand and go with him to Paradise is Umar b. al-Khattab.[16]

Another instance of a clearly erroneous hadith in the established books comes to us by Ibn al-Atheer who relates from Muhammad b. Khaleel, who al-Atheer himself said that he, Khaleel fabricates hadith[17] states:

The Prophet climbed Mount Uhud with Abu Bakr, Umar, and Uthman. The mountain was shaking, so the Prophet kicked the mountain and said, “Stop it Uhud, climbing you are only a prophet, a siddiq (truthful person), and two shaheeds (martyrs).”[18]

In Sahih al-Muslim, Ibn Abbas says:

When Umar died and was lying on his bed, people were coming and praying for him. I felt a man holding my shoulders from my back. I saw that the man was Ali b. Abi Talib. He (Ali) began seeking forgiveness for Umar and said, “I wish I could meet Allah with the same deeds that Umar is meeting him with.” Then he continued to say, “I hope that Allah will gather you (Umar) with your two companions (the Prophet and Abu Bakr) because I always heard the Prophet say, “I came with Abu Bakr and Umar; I left with Abu Bakr and Umar.”[19]

Since Ali grew up side by side with the Prophet and spent virtually every moment with him, it is unlikely that the Prophet named others as being closer to him, especially since Umar himself narrated that the Prophet said, “Ali is the guardian (mawla) of every male and female believer.”[20]

Attempting to prove that Umar was more insightful than the Prophet was someone related the following story:

One day, Umar saw the Prophet ordering the Muslims to destroy the palm trees of Khaybar, so Umar asked the Prophet to stop doing that. The Prophet listened to Umar and asked the people not to cut down the palm trees of Khaybar.[21]

Unfortunately, this particular narration has been used to lower the status of the Prophet, whereas in fact, it is extremely unlikely that Allah would send His final Messenger, perfect him in every way, and then leave him in need of basic guidance.

In another peculiar myth:

When Egypt was conquered during the time of Umar b. al-Khattab, the people of Egypt came to the first governor, Amr b. al-Aas. They told him, “We have a tradition regarding the Nile River. On the eleventh of this month, we find a virgin woman and after seeking her parents’ permission and satisfying them, we put the best clothing and ornaments on her, and then we throw her into the Nile. If we do not do this, then the river will not run.” Amr b. al-Aas said, “No, this is against Islam, for this is injustice,” and he banned them from this act. Since they did not throw a virgin woman into the Nile that year, it did not run and they had a drought so severe that they had to move (locations) due to a lack of water. When Amr b. al-Aas saw this, he wrote to Umar and asked him what to do. Umar wrote a letter to the river and asked his governor to throw the letter into the river. He wrote in the letter that he told the river, “If you are running by your own permission, then it is better that you do not run, but if you are running by the permission of Allah, then I ask that Allah make you run.” They threw the letter into the river, and suddenly the river began running.[22]

While many fabrications focus on Umar, numerous others exist exaggerating the status of Abu Bakr and Uthman and sadly belittling the Holy Prophet. For example, in Sahih al-Muslim:

The Prophet’s thighs and legs were uncovered. Abu Bakr came, but the Prophet did not cover himself. Umar came, but he also did not cover himself. But when Uthman came, the Prophet sat and covered himself. When Lady Aishah asked him why he did that, the Prophet said, “Should I not be modest in front of a man that the angels are shy in front of?”33

This narration is not in concordance with the high moral character of the Prophet. Seeing as the Prophet described Islam as a religion of modesty; it is difficult to imagine that he himself would be violating his own description of the path that he taught.

Similarly, in Sahih al-Muslim it says:

One day, Lady Aishah was sitting next to the Prophet. Abu Bakr sought permission to enter while the Prophet was lying on his bed and Lady Aishah was sitting there. He came and the Prophet attended to Abu Bakr, and then Abu Bakr left. Then Umar came and the Prophet attended to him. Then Uthman came. When Uthman came, the Prophet told Lady Aishah, “Cover yourself.” So she covered herself and the Prophet attended to Uthman. Then the Prophet turned to Lady Aishah and asked her, “Why were you not afraid when Umar and Abu Bakr came like you were when Uthman came?” She said, “Due to the fact that Uthman is a man with shame (rajulun hayy), and if I had remained (uncovered), then he would not have come and asked for what he needed, and I did not want to deprive him of obtaining what he required.” 34

Another story narrates that Allah sent the Angel Gabriel to ask Abu Bakr, “Are you happy with Allah? You are poor, do you accept this poverty?” Abu Bakr replied, “Should I be angry with Allah? No, I am happy with my God’s decision. I am happy with my God’s decision. I am happy with my God’s decision.” Al-Suyuti says regarding this hadith, “It is strange and the chain of narrators is weak.”35 [23] [24] [25]

In another hadith it says, “Allah ordered the angels to penetrate the skies just like Abu Bakr is penetrating the earth." Regarding this claim, Ibn Kathir says, “This hadith is wrong and evil ((munkaran jiddan)."

Al-Bukhari and Ahmad b. al-Hanbal relate that Lady Aishah said, “The Prophet was affected by magic by someone from Bani Zareeq named Lubayd b. al-Asal; and because of this spell, the Prophet would imagine that he had done something, but in fact he had not done it."[26]

Despite the poor performance of certain companions during the military excursions, fabrications about their bravery became abundant. When asked who was the bravest of the companions, Ali b. Abi Talib is said to have replied, “Abu Bakr - because on the day of Badr, we set up a tent for the Prophet, and we asked someone to stand next to him, so the mushrikeen (non-believers) would not attack him, none came forward except Abu Bakr. He raised his sword and stood there, thus he is the bravest person."

However, the Sunni historian, al-Tabari alludes to the unwillingness of Abu Bakr and Umar to fight, in addition to their frequent fleeing away from battles, such as in the Battle of Uhud and Hunain. Thus, the narrations that speak about their bravery are unjustifiable.[27]

Since Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Lady Aishah were the center of focus of such narrations, thus it may point to an element of untruth in them, since innumerable devoted companions, more than 100,000, aided the Prophet. Other books, such as Kitab al-Maghazi by al-Waqidi illustrates the same bias, mentioning Umar b. al-Khattab in 166 pages, and Abu Bakr in 143 pages, while he mentions only a few times other great companions such as Ammar b. Yasir, Musab b. Umair, Abdullah b. Masud, Khuzaymah b. Thabit, and Zayd b. al-Khattab (the brother of Umar).


--------------------------------------

[1] Ibn Abil Hadid, Sharh Nahjul-Balaghah, 1:61 and 1:182

[2] Ibid., 3:96

[3] Tafseer al-Fakhr al-Raizi, 3:175; Tafseer al-Kashshaf, 3:573; Al-Jami li-Akham al-Qur’an, 14:277; Al-Durral-Manthur, 5:229

[4] Ibn Abd al-Birr, Al-Estiaab, 3:1103

[5] Ibn Asakir, Al-Mukhtasar Tarikh b. Asakir, 18:323

[6] Al-Bayhaqi, Tafseer al-Qurtubi, 7:69; 14:126

[7] Ibid., 7:37

[8] Al-Estiaab, 2:430; Al-Hakim, Al-Mustadrak, 3:86

[9] Tafseer d-Fakheral-Razi, 21:88

[10] Sunan al-Tirmidhi, 5:281, hadith 3769; Al-Mustadrak ‘alaSahihayn, 3:85

[11] Sahih d-Bukhari, 5:15; Sahih al-Muslim, 4:1864/28; Mustadrak ‘ala Sahihayn, 3:86

[12] Abu Nuaym, Hiliyat al-Awliya, 1:24

[13] Al-Mustadrak ala Sahihayn, 3:167, hadith 473; Usd al-Ghabah, 7:224; Al-Isabah, 4:378; Al- Tahdheeb, 12:469; Majmaal-Zawaid, 9:203

[14] Tarikh Baghdad, 3:49; Ibn Hajr, Lisanal-Mizan, 5:225

[15] Ibn al-Atheer, Mukhtasar Tarikh b. Asakir, 18:282

[16] Al-Dhahabi, Al-Mizan, 2:12

[17] Ibn al-Atheer, Usd al-Ghabah, 4:173

[18] Ibn Hajar, Lisanal-Mizan, 5:180

[19] Sahih al-Muslim, 4:1858, hadith 2389

[20] Tafseer al-Tha’laby, 4:92; Al-Thahabi Tarikh al-Islam, 3:633

[21] Al-Sir al-Kabir, 1:55

[22] Al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafa, p. 127

[23] Sahih al-Muslim, 4:1866, hadith 2401

[24] Bab Fadahil Uthman, 7:117, Musnad Ahmad b. Hanbal, 4:353; Al-Adbe al-Mufrad, Sahih al- Buhkari, p.131

[25] Al-Suyuti, Tarikhal-Khulafa, p.39

[26] Sahih al-Bukhari, 7:28; MusnadAhmadb. Hanbal, 6:57

[27] Tarikh al-Tabari, 2:240

Hadith of the “Ten People Guaranteed Paradise”

From the Book :
When Power and Piety Collide
By Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini

One of the most infamous hadith a fabrication is referred to as, “Ten People Guaranteed Paradise (al-Asharah Mubashsharah bil-Jannah).”

According to this hadith the “ten people guaranteed Paradise” are: (1) Abu Bakr b. Abi Qahafah (2) Umar b. al-Khattab (3) Uthman b. al-Affan (4) Talha b. Ubaydillah (5) Zubayr b. al-Awam (6) Abd al-Rahman b. Auf (7) Sa’d b. Abi Waqqas (8) Abdullah b. Masoud (9) Abu Obaydah b. al-Jarrah and (10) Ali b. Abi Talib. Collectively granting them all paradise puts us in a great dilemma because many of these individuals are known for their questionable character.

To begin with, only al-Tirmidhi includes this hadith, whereas al- Bukhari, al-Muslim, and al-Dhahabi all reject it.[1] It behooves us to ask why the other prominent hadith recorders did not mention this hadith, since being guaranteed Paradise assures that their course of life was traveled correctly. Then who narrated this “hadith?” Near the top of the chain of narrators lies Sa’ed b. Zayd, the son-in-law of the second caliph - a man who refused to pay allegiance to Imam Ali during his caliphate.

Another point to consider is that those guaranteed Paradise should include those who sacrificed their lives and properties in the path of

Allah, so why were not the hundreds of martyrs and companions included in this hadith? For example, the “Leader of the Martyrs (Sayyid al'Shuhada)'' Hamzah, the uncle of the Holy Prophet is not included in this hadith, nor are any of the Ansar whom the Holy Prophet constantly praised.

Above that, to guarantee Paradise to Talha, Zubayr, Abd al-Rahman b. Auf, and Uthman b. al-Affan would bring about a problem for several reasons. First, Talha, Zubayr, and Abd al-Rahman b. Auf used to call Uthman a “fasiq” (indecent), and they eventually revolted against him during his caliphate. In addition, Talha and Zubayr pressed for a civil war by supporting and joining Lady Aishah in the Battle of the Camel, in which both of them were killed in the battle. Secondly, Uthman and Abd al-Rahman b. Auf (whom Umar nicknamed “the Pharaoh of this nation"[2]), after a falling out, did not speak to one another until death. Furthermore, after Uthman’s assassination, the Muslims were so angry with Uthman that they did not allow for his body to be buried in al-Baqi cemetery; hence, his remains were buried in the Jewish cemetery of Kokab.[3] He remained buried there until Mu’awiyah came to power and included him in the common cemetery of al-Baqi, in Madinah. To add, Sa’d b. Abi al-Waqqas refused to pay allegiance to Imam Ali even when the rest of the ummah accepted him as their fourth caliph. Nevertheless, many Muslim leaders still cite this fabricated hadith, and many Muslims embrace it unquestioningly.

-------------------------------

[1] Al-Dhahabi, Mizan al-Itedaal

[2] Ibn Qutaybah, Al-Imamah wal-Siyasah, 24

[3] Ibn Abd al-Birr, Al-Estiaab

Dialogue between Abdullah b. al-Abbas and Umar b. al- Khattab

From the Book :
When Power and Piety Collide
By Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini

Abdullah b. al-Abbas (who is from the tribe of Bani Hashim and was the first cousin of Ali and the Prophet) and Umar b. al-Khattab held many discussions. On one occasion, during the caliphate of Umar they debated whether the Bani Hashim should hold the caliphate. This dialogue is of particular interest, since it highlights the issues at hand.[1]

Umar, “Do you know why the people did not elect you [the family of the Prophet] to the caliphate?"

Ibn Abbas, “No, I do not know."

Umar, “I know what the reason was."

Ibn Abbas, “What was it?"

Umar, “The Quraysh hated to see the prophethood and caliphate vested in one house. If that would have happened, you would have wronged the people!"

Ibn Abbas, “Can Amir al-Mumineen (Umar) control his anger if I want to say something?"

Umar, “Feel free to say whatever you want to say."

Ibn Abbas, “If you say that Quraysh hated to see this [prophethood and caliphate vested in one family] then (know that) in the Qur’an, Allah has said about some of the companions [who had lived during the time of the Prophet], “That is because they hate the revelation of Allah, so He has made their deeds fruitless."[2] And if you say that we [Bani Hashim] will do injustice if both the prophethood and caliphate are vested in our family, then if we are supposed to do mischief, we will do mischief even without being caliphs or successors, simply because we are the family of the Prophet and the closest people to him. However, we will not do that because our stance, morality, and attitude mirror the attitude of the

Prophet, about whom Allah says, “Verily, you stand on an exalted standard of character."[3] Also Allah said, “Lower your wing to the believers who follow you."[4] We will not depart from him (the Prophet), so why are you worried that if we become caliphs we will do mischief? If you say, “The Quraysh chose Abu Bakr and Umar," then Allah answers, “Your Lord creates and chooses as He pleases. No choices have they in the matter."[5] Plus you know Umar, that Allah has chosen certain people from among His creatures to lead humanity. If the Quraysh had joined their vision with the plan of Allah, then the community would have been prosperous and successful."

Umar, “Calm down Ibn Abbas. You members of the Bani Hashim, your heart only wanted to deceive the Quraysh permanently, and you hold perpetual hatred and animosity towards the Quraysh."

Ibn Abbas, “Calm down Umar, do not say that the hearts of Bani Hashim are deceitful. Their hearts are part of the heart of the Messenger of Allah. It is the same heart of the Messenger of Allah that Allah has cleansed and purified, and they are the family of the Prophet whom Allah describes as, “Allah only wishes to remove all abomination from you, O members of the family of the Prophet, and to make you pure and immaculate."[6] If you speak about animosity and grudges in our hearts, this would be natural given that our right has been usurped from us and it is in the hands of a transgressor."

Umar, “What are you saying Ibn Abbas? I have heard some bad things about you, and if I mention them to you, I would lose respect for you in my eyes."

Ibn Abbas, “What have you heard about me? Tell me. If it is false, I will defend myself. If it is true, I will never lose respect for you in my eyes."

Umar, “I have heard you telling people that this issue [the khalifah] was taken from the family of the Prophet out of jealousy and by way of injustice."

Ibn Abbas, “Regarding jealousy, yes it is true because Iblis (Satan) was jealous of Adam and forced him out of Paradise. We are the children of Adam, and there is always jealousy among us. If you say “transgression," you know better who has the right in this matter [the khalifah], and you Umar are the best person to answer this question. Did you not say that the Arabs are closer to the non-Arabs to the Prophet, and did you not say that the Quraysh are closer than the other tribes are to the Prophet? If you have said that and if you come to the Quraysh, then who among them is closest to the Prophet? Of course, they are the Bani Hashim. I am using the same analogy that you used. We have more right to the caliphate than anyone from the Quraysh."

Umar, “Stand up and go home."

Ibn Abbas stood up and as he was leaving Umar said, “You who are leaving, come back! Despite what has happened between us, you are still respected in my eyes."

Ibn Abbas answered, “You who are the caliph now, we also have to preserve your right." After Ibn Abbas left, Umar turned to the people around him and said, “I never saw Ibn Abbas discuss something with anyone and not defeat him."

---------------------------------

[1] Tarikhal-Tabari, 5:30; Qasas al-Arab, 2:363; Ibn al-Atheer, Al-Kamil fil-Tarikh, 3:63; Ibn Abil Hadid, SharhNahjul-Balaghah, 3:107

[2] Holy Qur’an, 47:9

[3] Holy Qur’an, 68:4

[4] Holy Qur’an, 26:215

[5] Holy Qur’an, 28:68

[6] Holy Qur’an, 33:33

Innovations of Umar b. al-Khattab

From the Book :
When Power and Piety Collide
By Sayed Moustafa al-Qazwini

According to historical records, Umar b. al-Khattab prided himself on his “improvements" to the teachings of the Qur’an and the Prophet. Although Abu Bakr and Uthman both adjusted religious law for special cases,[1] Umar relied almost entirely on his own opinion and encouraged others to do the same.

When he appointed Shurayh al-Qadi as the religious judge of Madinah, he instructed him, “If you are searching for a verdict, then look in the Book of God. If you do not find one, then look in the tradition of the Prophet. But if you do not find it in the tradition of the Prophet, then make up a verdict yourself." [2]

Similarly, he wrote to Abu Musa al-Ashari, “If you do not find an answer in the Book or the tradition, then make an analogy and develop an answer yourself."[3] For these reasons, al-Tabari says that people preferred not to take their disputes to Umar, because he was known for judging by his personal beliefs, rather than the Islamic criteria.[4]

Changes During Umar’s Reign

Some of the practices that Umar is best known for changing are the adhan (call to prayer), tarawih117 prayer, prayers for the deceased, and the laws of divorce which we will explain in detail:

Adhan (Call to Prayer)

Initially, "as-salatu khayrun min an-nawm (prayer is better than sleep)" was not part of the adhan. It came about one morning when Umar’s servant came to wake him for prayer by calling to him, "as-salatu khayrun min an- nawmT’ Approving of that phrase, Umar instructed the muadhdhin (a person who performs the call to prayer) to include it in the adhan from then on.[5] [6]

History of the Adhan

A majority of the Sunni commentators maintain that the Prophet learned the adhan from a companion named Abdullah b. Zayd. Narrators such as al-Tirmidhi, Abu Dawud, and Ibn Majah say that the Prophet asked his companions how he should inform people about the time for prayer. Some said he should use a banner, others said a horn, and others said a bell, like the Christians. According to these narrators, it is reported that on that night, Abdullah b. Zayd had the following strange dream:

Abdullah b. Zayd saw a man carrying a bell in his hand. He asked if he could buy the bell, and the man asked him what he wanted it for. Abdullah b. Zayd said, "I want to use it to call the people to prayer.” The man replied, "I can teach you something better than ringing the bell,” and then he taught Abdullah b. Zayd the adhan.

According to these commentators, in the morning Abdullah b. Zayd told the Prophet his dream. The Prophet replied, “This is a true dream that you have seen. Come with me to Bilal - teach him what you have seen in the dream and let Bilal learn the adhan.” The story concludes that when Umar heard the adhan, he told the Prophet, “I swear, I saw the same dream,” and the Prophet said, “praise be to Allah.”

Clearly, this story cannot be true for surely Allah, the Merciful, the Compassionate to humankind, would not provide detailed revelation and then omit an important practice such as the adhan.

Nonetheless, there exists another explanation, which is accepted by Shia scholars:[7]

Gabriel came to the Prophet while the Prophet was resting on Ali. Gabriel read the adhan to them. To maintain this, the Prophet turned to Ali and said, “Did you hear the adhan?” Ali said, “Yes.” The Prophet said, “Did you memorize it?” Ali said, “Yes.” The Prophet said, “Then call Bilal; let us teach him the adhan.” So they called Bilal and taught him the adhan.[8]

An important point to note is that because the instructions came from angel Gabriel, the adhan must be considered as being part of the revelation, and not a whimsical dream seen by one of the companions.

Prayer without Taharah (Ritual Purity)

Al-Bukhari narrates that one day a man came to Umar and said, “I am in a state of janabah (ritual impurity) and I cannot find water.” Umar told him, “Do not pray.” Ammar b. Yasir, who was sitting there retorted:

Do you not remember that you and I were in a battalion going to the battles, and both of us woke up and found ourselves in a state of ritual impurity, and we did not find water? So you did not pray, but I did the tayammum (ritual purification by means of dust) in the dust. We mentioned this to the Prophet, and the Prophet said that you should have put your hands in the dust and performed the tayammum. [9]

Primarily, the Qur’an prescribes the tayammum for situations when water cannot be found. (c. 4:43) Therefore, most of the Sunni schools of thought follow the Qur’an in this regard. Only the Hanafi school follows Umar’s opinion and indicates that tayammum is permissible only while traveling or ill, but in all other cases, a person who cannot find water for taharah should not pray.

Tarawih Prayers

Al-Bukhari narrates from Abdullah b. Abd al-Qari:

I went with Umar b. al-Khattab during his period of caliphate one night in the Month of Ramadhan to the mosque. We saw the people praying scattered, not together. Umar said, “It is best if these people can pray together, and there is only one who leads the prayers.” So he gathered them and appointed Ubay b. Ka’ab to lead the prayers. Another night, I went with Umar to the mosque and saw that the people were praying together, organized, and Umar said, “What an excellent innovation (mam al-bidah hadhihi).”[10]

Prayers for the Deceased

Although narrators like Ahmad b. al-Hanbal, al-Muslim, and al-Nisa’i all relate that the Prophet read prayers over the deceased with five takbiraat (uttering "Allahu akbar”);[11] however, Umar reduced the number of takbiraat in prayers over the deceased from five to four.[12]

Three Divorces in One Session

According to the Holy Qur’an (c. 2:229), a married couple may divorce each other three times before they are no longer allowed to remarry each other.[13] Thus, divorce must be declared and its rulings applied on three separate periods; the pronouncement of the three divorces cannot be declared in one declaration. The Holy Prophet explained:

A man came to the Prophet and told him, "I divorced my wife.” The Prophet asked, "How did you divorce her?” He said, "Three times in one session.” The Prophet said, "That divorce is considered only one divorce. It cannot be considered three divorces, so you may take your wife back.”[14]

However, historians say that divorce became more prevalent during the time of the second caliph; thus to make divorce easier, Umar allowed men to read all three pronouncements of divorce at one time.[15]

Other Actions performed by Umar

Umar also did following:

• Prevented the death announcement of the Prophet

• Objected to the T reaty of Hudaybiyyah

• Refused to join the dispatch of Usama as the Prophet commanded him to do so just before his death

• Prevented the Prophet from narrating his will

• He was the first person to give allegiance to Abu Bakr at Saqifah

• Offered two options to Ali and Fatima al-Zahra - pay allegiance to Abu Bakr or face the consequences

• Appointed Mu’awiyah as governor of Syria

• Appointed Abu Huraira as governor of Bahrain and then accused him of theft and lying about the statements of the Prophet

• Allocated different salaries to different groups of people, introducing discrimination into the financial system

• Permitted wiping over one’s socks in wudhu instead of removing them and performing it on the bare feet;

• Prevented people from mourning over the dead[16]

• Forced people who had taken the names of prophets (as their first names) to change their names[17]

• Required all men to offer the same amount of mahr (marriage gift) to all women

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[1] For example, Abu Bakr was unwilling to prosecute Khalid b. al-Waleed, who killed Malik b. Nuwayrah, and who on the same night, had committed adultery with the wife of the victim. Abu Bakr said, “He made ijtihad (deducing Muslim law), but of course he made an error," and left the matter at that.

[2] Muhammad al-Khudari, Tarikh d-Tashri al-Islami, p.83

[3] Ibid

[4] Al-Tabari, 2:617

[5] In the Sunni tradition, tarawih is done as a congregational prayer during the nights of the Month of Ramadhan, while the Shia perform it individually.

[6] Jalal al-Deen al-Suyuti, footnoted in Tanweer d-Hawdik, referencing Muwatta Malik; Sunan d-Tirmidhi, 1:64

[7] Wasail al-Shiah, 4:612

[8] Prophet Muhammad said, “Ali, you can see all that I can see, and you can hear all that I can hear; except that you are not a prophet but a vicegerent and you are virtually on the path of virtue.” Nahjul Balaghah, sermon 192

[9] Sunan al-Nisa’i, 1:169; Sunan Ibn Majah, 1:188; Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Sunan al-Kubaa, 1:209; Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 4:505; Ibn Qudaamah, Al-Mughni, 1:234; Ibn Rushd, Al-Bidayah wal-Nihayah, 1:63

[10] Sahih al-Bukaari, 3:58; Tarikh al-Madinah al-Munawarah, 2:713; Al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah, 1:309; Tarikh al-Yaqubi, 2:114

[11] MusnadAhmadb. Hanbal, 4:370; Sahih al-Muslim, Baab al-Salat alaal-Qabr; Kitab al-Janazah

[12] Al-Suyuti, Tarikh al-Khulafah, p. 137

[13] Al-Jassas, Ahkam al-Qur’an, 1:378

[14] Sirat b. Ishaq, 2:191

[15] Sahih al-Muslim, Chapter of Talaq al-Thalath, 1:575; Musnad Ahmad b. Hanbal, 1:314; Al- Bayhaqi, 7:336

[16] Umdat al-Qari, 4:87; Sahih al-Bukhari, 2:102; Sahih al-Muslim, 2:238

[17] Tabaqatb. Sa’d, 5:51; Umdat al-Qari, 7:143

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